Foods and Nutrition 1021 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Polyphagia, Hemorrhoid, Brown Sugar

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F&N – Classes 5 and 6 16:07
CHAPTER 4: The Carbohydrates – Sugar, Starch, Glycogen, & Fiber
Carbohydrates (CHO)
The body’s first choice for energy needs
oUsed as glucose or stored as glycogen
Dietary Sources:
Grains (e.g. Breads/Cereals/Pasta/etc.), Beans/legumes
Milk and alternatives
Fruits
Starchy vegetables (Ex. Potatoes/Turnip/Corn/Carrots/etc)
Simple Carbohydrates:
Sugars (1-2 polymers)
Monosaccharides: glucose, galactose, fructose
Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose
Sugar Alcohols: sorbitol, mannitol
Carbohydrate Types and Their Importance: Monosaccharides
Glucose
Blood sugar (dextrose)
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Essential CHO - main source of energy for brain & nerves
Excreted in the urine by diabetics
Fructose
Fruit sugar; sweeter than sugar
Galactose
Part of lactose (milk sugar); freed during digestion
Carbohydrate Types and Their Importance: Disaccharides
Sucrose (Fructose-glucose)
Table sugar (beet or cane)
Lactose (Galactose-glucose)
Sugar in milk
Poorly digested by some people
Maltose (Glucose-glucose)
Malt sugar
In germinating seeds
Important in brewing
Complex Carbohydrates:
Starch & fiber (3 or more polymers)
Oligosaccharides (3-9 polymers)
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oMalto-oligosaccharides: maltodextrins
oOther oligo-saccharides: raffinose, stachyose, fructo-oligosaccharides
Polysaccharides (>9 polymers)
Starch: amylose, amylopectin, modifed starches
Non-starch polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, hydrocolloids
Carbohydrate Types and Their Importance: Polysaccharides
Starch
Excellent source of glucose
Storage form of glucose in plants
Fiber
Indigestible parts of plant foods
Cellulose; Hemicellulose; pectins; gums; mucilages; nonpolysaccharide lignin
Glycogen
Storage form of CHO in liver & muscles in humans & animals
The Need for CHO:
Glucose from CHO
Important fuel for most body functions
Critical energy source for the brain & nerves
Starchy foods
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