Foods and Nutrition 1021 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Nutrition, Nutrient, Food Energy

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Chapter 1: Food Choices and Human Health
A Lifetime of Nourishment
Malnutrition: Includes deficiencies, imbalances, and excess of nutrients, which can take a toll on
health overtime.
The nutrients in food support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body.
Genetics and Individuality
Choice of diet influences long-term health within the range set by genetic inheritance. Nutrition
has little influence on some diseases but strongly affects others.
The Importance of Nutritional Genomics
It holds great promise for advances in nutrition science.
Other Lifestyle Choices
Personal life choices, such as staying active or using tobacco or alcohol, also affect health.
The Human Body and Its Food
The body must use energy.
The body requires six kinds of nutrients: water, carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins, and
minerals. Those that contain carbon are organic (carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins).
The Nutrients in Foods
Energy-yielding nutrients: the body can use the energy stored in the carbon-carbon bonds that
contain. Three include: carbohydrates, fats, and protein.
Vitamins and minerals provide no energy but assist in all body processes (regulator nutrients).
Essential nutrients: must ingest or deficiencies will develop.
Food energy is measured in calories.
Food and nutrient quantities are measured in grams.
Energy Nutrient Energy
Carbohydrate 4 Cal/g
Fat (lipid) 9 Cal/g
Protein 4 Cal/g
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