Foods and Nutrition 1030E Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Osteoporosis, Hemoglobin, Androstenedione

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Chapter 12: Nutrient and Physical Activity
Physical Activity vs. Fitness
Physical activity: any muscle movement that increases energy expenditure
Leisure time physical activity: any activity unrelated to a person’s occupation (ex.
Hiking, walking, biking) (includes exercise- planned, and structured physical activity)
Physical Fitness: state of being that is created by the interaction between nutrition and
physical activity
Cardiorespiratory Fitness: aerobic (walking, swimming, running, skiing)
Musculoskeletal Fitness: (strength- heavy weights endurance- light weights)
Flexibility: (stretching, yoga)
Body Composition: aerobic/resistance training (lean vs. fat mass)
Benefits of Physical Activity
Regular Physical Activity…
-Reduces the risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure
-Reduces the risk for obesity
-Reduces the risk for type 2 diabetes
-Reduces the risk for osteoporosis
-May reduce the risk of colon cancer
-An active lifestyle during childhood increases the likelihood of a healthier life as
an adult
Sound Fitness Program
A sound fitness program…
Meets your personal goals
An individual’s fitness program will be different if he/she is
-Training for athletic competition
-Working toward cardiorespiratory fitness
-Trying to maintain overall health
Includes variety and consistency, and is fun
-A variety of activities prevents boredom
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-An individual’s fitness program should focus on what he/she enjoys (outdoor
activities, social recreation)
Appropriately overloads the body
Overload principle: put additional physical demands on the body to improve fitness
-Too much physical activity exertion is not recommended
-The FIT principle can be used to determine appropriate overload
FIT principle:
Frequency- the frequency of physical activity varies with fitness goals
Intensity- determining proper intensity may be based on maximal heart rate
Time of Activity- whether the total activity time is an accumulation of activities or
completed all at once
Includes a warm up and cool down
-Includes stretching and calisthenics
-Helps prevent injuries
-May reduce muscle soreness
-Should last 5-10mins
Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines
-150 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity per week
-Strength and resistance training 2 times per week
Fuel for Physical Activity
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): the carrying molecule in the body
-Must be generated continuously since muscles store only enough ATP for 1-3
seconds of activity
After depleting ATP stores, muscles turn to other energy sources
-Creatine phosphate (CP) stores energy that can used to generate ATP
-Creatine phosphate can be broken down to support the regeneration of ATP for
enough energy for 3-15 seconds of maximal physical effort
After creatine phosphate, carbohydrates are the next source of energy for the
production of ATP; Glucose is the primary carbohydrate used to generate ATP
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-Anaerobic ( without oxygen) breakdown of glucose yields 2 ATP molecules and
produces lactic acid
-Aerobic (with oxygen) breakdown of glucose yields 36-38 molecules of ATP and
CO2 and H20 are produced
Our bodies store glucose as glycogen
Triglycerides (fats) can be metabolized to generate ATP
-For low-intensity exercise
-For exercise of long duration
-A very abundant energy source, even in lean people
-Provides more than 2 times the energy per gram as carbohydrate
Carbohydrates and fats can both be used as energy sources for the production of ATP
-Carbohydrates are mostly used for high intensity activity
-Fats are used for low intensity exercise
Proteins (amino acids) are not a major fuel source for exercise
-3-6% of energy needs during exercise
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