Foods and Nutrition 1030E Lecture 1: Nutrigenomics notes

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Nutrigenomics
Review of Genetics
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Molecule of life
Contains all of the information needed to build an organism
Composed of nucleic acids
Genes are a sequence of nucleotides (A,C,G,T)
A gene is a sequence of DNA which codes the formation of RNA, which in turn
directs the formation of a protein
Genotype= DNA sequence (ex: specific gene for blue eyes)
Phenotype= external features (blue eyes)
Differences in nucleotides produce genetic variants
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism= SNP (ex: C replacing A)
Insertion/deletion= deleted segments or additional segments can be inserted
We inherit two copies of most genes, one from each parent
Each gene has two different forms (A and C or ins and del)
Three possible variants (genotypes) (ex: AA, CA, CC)
*3 nucleotides=1codon
*Homozygous-AA or CC
*Heterozygous- AC or CA
*Enzymes are proteins
1.) Genes code proteins
- Ex: enzymes, transporters, hormones, receptors
2.) Different versions of a gene (alleles) are possible
- Create different amounts of the protein or functionally different versions of the protein
3.) Proteins interact with dietary components
- Genetic variation-Different function of protein-Different nutritional status
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Nutrigenomics
Nutrition: what about our diet affects our health
Nutrigenomics: how our diet affects our genes and how our genes affect our diet and
health
Using genetic information and genomic technologies to investigate how nutrients
interact with our genome to impact our health and performance
Genetics can affect... Taste, Smell, Appetite, Metabolism, Absorption, Digestion,
Excretion
Example: Primary Lactose & Tolerance (genetics); Secondary Lactose & Tolerance
(celiac disease)
Traditional Nutrition vs. Nutrigenomics
Traditional: based on nutrition epidemiology
Associate specific foods/nutrients with incidence and severity of disease
Focuses on group or population differences
Heterogenic populations are grouped together
Nutrigenomics: addresses challenges to nutritional epidemiology
Recall bias (case-control)
Improve measures of exposure
Minimize residual confounding factors
Identify bioactive and elucidate mechanism
Ethical & legal, social & safety issues
Ethical & Legal:
DTC (direct consumer) vs. health professionals
Who has access to the information ]
Insurers
Social:
Discrimination, costs
Safety: Diagnosis vs. risk assessment
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