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Geography 1100

Geography 1100 Unit 7 10)Tounderstandstateidentitybycentrifugalandcentripetalforces Centrifugal forces: pull a state apart. these forces that have ability to pull apart have a different languages strong minority group (two groups dont wanna talk to each other)no central core area(rival each other) have ambiguous boundaries, high population density in frontier/boundary areas Centripetal forces: keep a state together. Single language, common cultural history, strong polarizing core area, well defined and uncontested boundaries (eg sea coast, mountain ranges); low population density in boundary/frontier areas 1)TounderstandthecausesofdroughtintheUSGreatPlainsduringthe1930's. 1)The Dust Bowl: Where was it? Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico,Texas These were the most effected states but went to Canada. It was called the dust bowl because the land blew out and away. The dust bowl is like a bike pump, as you press the air in and out the pump gets hot. As air moves across the earths surface is get deflected to the right. The dust bowl was a dry period for prolonged period of time. the wind would catch the earths surfaces and move it around as dust. Because of the drought there arose many ecological and agticuatural problems. It wasn't possible for plants to grow during the drought. no soil present, just sand, so no plants could grow. The Grapes of Wrath- John Steinbeck A family forced to move out of the dustbowl to California. people saw the drought as a way of farming. In the early part of the late 19th century plants were planted, the soil was very fertile, alot of nutrients for plants to grow. In the dust bowl most of the precipitation would arrive in thunderstorms. There were dry winters. The dustbowl initially had an ecosystem imbalance. the human beings and animals who lived in the dustbowl lived in this area. there may have been droughts in the past, the soil wasn’t blown away. the environments sustains an ecosystem in such a way for the animals to live. the native vegetation was a variety of shortgrass steppe that could quickly grow when moisture returned. if you were a farmer in the dustbowl and just encountered your first failure in vegetation what do you do? you are tied down to that land because you dont just get out and Geography 1100 Unit 7 move. As the land was being plowed that means there was sufficient rain for things to grow. the US government encouraged people to work this land “Homestead Act” The first people to arrive used cattle and sheep. They put to many cattle and sheep in the land and it came up with overgrazing which meant they ate all the grass. During thr first world war agricultural production increased and the demand went up making more people want to grow more crops because it was in need (supply and demand). Huge areas of land were plowed and the stubble was burned 1930s US soil Conservation Services was formed (1933) PBS show on the dustbowl Oklahoma - currently has shortgrass in the prairie. Dustbowl was Created by human beings, it always occurs. 2)Tounderstandhowdroughtisdefined. 2) Drought: dry condition for a period of time, the period of time and how long depends. Drought depends on impacts not just participation. There is no exact definition it depends on place to place. 3)Toknowwhatare4differenttypesofdrought. There are 4 types of drought we are going to discuss: Meterological Drought: defined on the degree of dryness. lack/how much rain there is or fals over a period of time. it depends on the place. when asking for a definition it again depends on the place. Agriculatural drought: Characteristic of meterological and hydrological . it focuses of participation shortages. how much water could potentially evaporate from a surface. IT also depends on the type of vegetation we are talking about. Hydrological Drought: periods of low precipitation. river flows begin to decrease. we are talking about river system and basins. We measure this by the flow of streams. Socioeconomic Drought: the supply and demand of that product. lack of water is associated with this. Geography 1100 Unit 7 3)PrincipleElementsofDroughtRiskReductionFramework: What type of policies could we put in place to reduce dought? Mitigation policies- one not being able to plow the field, being prepared for drought positions such as store water on the land. Education and awareness policy telling people what a drought is and how to deal with them. Education people of the risks of droughts and how to deal with future droughts. 4)TounderstandtherolethattheColoradoriverplaysintheUSSouthwest. 4)Colorado River System: Million acre feet- one foot of water available over a million acres of land Add: Political Geography: Chapter 9 Readings- more reading from the textbook then first term 6)6)Boundaries: Territories are present to for example attract a mate, attract food supply in an animal sense. There is an instinctive need for space or control of space. We have to recognize we all have this need. Territories might exist to force out weaker members. We can describe it as being a mechanism of natural selection. It is the basic need of most animals. to have a territory. Territories can force us out weaker members to obtain territory. A political boundary could be a wide range of boundaries to home. Natural Boundaries: mountains, rivers, lakes Artificial Boundaries (geometric) : based on longitude and latitude (distance on map) Rivers as Boundaries: What are some problems having rivers as boundaries? Rivers reiterate move meaning boundaries move. Geography 1100 Unit 7 History of using Rio Grande as a boundary marker. The Treaty of Guadalupe 1848 was established as the international boundary over a 1600km boundary. The river was defined as the boundary, but what if the river changes? In 1905 Mexico and the USA signed a treaty (Banco Treaty) agreed to exchange apx equal parcels of land from time to time as the river changed. In 1910 the USA and Mexico agreed to settle this problem so they selected an american mexico commission so 3 people were chosen from each country to settle the problem. They agreed that the 1852 shift would remain in the USA and the 1864 (larger shift) tract should be returned to Mexico. The US didn’t like this even though they agreed to it in the beginning. The transfer of land eventually took place in 1963. Political boundaries are not permanent, Europe was a good example of that. International Agreement between states: UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas) Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ Internal Waters: subject to the laws of the state- much like being on land. Territorial waters: not to exceed 12 nautical miles. boats may travel on territorial waters. if vessels are a threat to state security they may be suspended. Contiguous Zone: may not exceed 24 nautical miles seaward from baselines. State has right to
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