Geography 1100 Unit 7
Centrifugal forces: pull a state apart. these forces that have ability to pull apart
have a different languages strong minority group (two groups dont wanna talk to
each other)no central core area(rival each other) have ambiguous boundaries,
high population density in frontier/boundary areas
Centripetal forces: keep a state together. Single language, common cultural
history, strong polarizing core area, well defined and uncontested boundaries (eg
sea coast, mountain ranges); low population density in boundary/frontier areas
1)The Dust Bowl:
Where was it? Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico,Texas
These were the most effected states but went to Canada. It was called the dust bowl
because the land blew out and away. The dust bowl is like a bike pump, as you press
the air in and out the pump gets hot. As air moves across the earths surface is get
deflected to the right. The dust bowl was a dry period for prolonged period of time. the
wind would catch the earths surfaces and move it around as dust. Because of the
drought there arose many ecological and agticuatural problems. It wasn't possible for
plants to grow during the drought. no soil present, just sand, so no plants could grow.
The Grapes of Wrath- John Steinbeck
A family forced to move out of the dustbowl to California.
people saw the drought as a way of farming. In the early part of the late 19th century
plants were planted, the soil was very fertile, alot of nutrients for plants to grow. In the
dust bowl most of the precipitation would arrive in thunderstorms. There were dry
The dustbowl initially had an ecosystem imbalance. the human beings and animals who
lived in the dustbowl lived in this area. there may have been droughts in the past, the
soil wasn’t blown away. the environments sustains an ecosystem in such a way for the
animals to live. the native vegetation was a variety of shortgrass steppe that could
quickly grow when moisture returned.
if you were a farmer in the dustbowl and just encountered your first failure in vegetation
what do you do? you are tied down to that land because you dont just get out and Geography 1100 Unit 7
move. As the land was being plowed that means there was sufficient rain for things to
grow. the US government encouraged people to work this land “Homestead Act”
The first people to arrive used cattle and sheep. They put to many cattle and sheep in
the land and it came up with overgrazing which meant they ate all the grass. During thr
first world war agricultural production increased and the demand went up making more
people want to grow more crops because it was in need (supply and demand). Huge
areas of land were plowed and the stubble was burned
US soil Conservation Services was formed (1933)
PBS show on the dustbowl
Oklahoma - currently has shortgrass in the prairie.
Dustbowl was Created by human beings, it always occurs.
2) Drought: dry condition for a period of time, the period of time and how long depends.
Drought depends on impacts not just participation. There is no exact definition it
depends on place to place.
There are 4 types of drought we are going to discuss:
Meterological Drought: defined on the degree of dryness. lack/how much rain there is or
fals over a period of time. it depends on the place. when asking for a definition it again
depends on the place.
Agriculatural drought: Characteristic of meterological and hydrological . it focuses of
participation shortages. how much water could potentially evaporate from a surface. IT
also depends on the type of vegetation we are talking about.
Hydrological Drought: periods of low precipitation. river flows begin to decrease. we are
talking about river system and basins. We measure this by the flow of streams.
Socioeconomic Drought: the supply and demand of that product. lack of water is
associated with this. Geography 1100 Unit 7
What type of policies could we put in place to reduce dought? Mitigation policies- one
not being able to plow the field, being prepared for drought positions such as store
water on the land. Education and awareness policy telling people what a drought is and
how to deal with them. Education people of the risks of droughts and how to deal with
4)Colorado River System:
Million acre feet- one foot of water available over a million acres of land
Political Geography: Chapter 9 Readings- more reading from the textbook then first term
Territories are present to for example attract a mate, attract food supply in an animal
sense. There is an instinctive need for space or control of space. We have to recognize
we all have this need. Territories might exist to force out weaker members. We can
describe it as being a mechanism of natural selection. It is the basic need of most
animals. to have a territory. Territories can force us out weaker members to obtain
territory. A political boundary could be a wide range of boundaries to home.
Natural Boundaries: mountains, rivers, lakes
Artificial Boundaries (geometric) : based on longitude and latitude (distance on map)
Rivers as Boundaries:
What are some problems having rivers as boundaries? Rivers reiterate move meaning
boundaries move. Geography 1100 Unit 7
History of using Rio Grande as a boundary marker. The Treaty of Guadalupe 1848 was
established as the international boundary over a 1600km boundary. The river was
defined as the boundary, but what if the river changes?
In 1905 Mexico and the USA signed a treaty (Banco Treaty) agreed to exchange apx
equal parcels of land from time to time as the river changed.
In 1910 the USA and Mexico agreed to settle this problem so they selected an american
mexico commission so 3 people were chosen from each country to settle the problem.
They agreed that the 1852 shift would remain in the USA and the 1864 (larger shift)
tract should be returned to Mexico. The US didn’t like this even though they agreed to it
in the beginning. The transfer of land eventually took place in 1963. Political boundaries
are not permanent, Europe was a good example of that.
International Agreement between states:
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas)
Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ
Internal Waters: subject to the laws of the state- much like being on land.
Territorial waters: not to exceed 12 nautical miles. boats may travel on territorial waters.
if vessels are a threat to state security they may be suspended.
Contiguous Zone: may not exceed 24 nautical miles seaward from baselines. State has