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Western University
Geography 1100
D.Kim Holland

Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes Unit 1 Intro to Geography o What is Geography? - concerned to provide an accurate, orderly, and rational description of the variable character of the earth’s surface - seek to explain how the subsystems of the physical environment are organized on the earth’s surface, and how man distributes himself over the earth in relation to physical features and to other men - concerned with giving man an orderly description of his world, however, the contemporary stress in on geography as the study of spatial organization expressed as patterns and processes - a science concerned with the rational development, and testing, of theories that explain and predict the spatial distribution and location of various characteristics on the surface of the earth - the study of earth as the home of people - the science of geography is likely the oldest of all sciences, it is the answer to the question that the earliest humans asked “What’s over there?”, exploration and the discovery of new places and people o Why does geography exist? - because of SPATIAL VARIATION o Earth’s 4 spheres - atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere - biosphere is the interaction of the first three spheres Chloropleth map Isopleth map o Geographers seek answers to three broad questions - where is it? > location: precise position > region identification (maps) > human-environment relationships - Why is it there? - Why is it Important o Location - absolute location: longitude and latitude > latitude and parallels (east to west)  equator > longitude and meridians (north to south, all lines go through north and south poles)  0 at Greenwich, England - relative location: place relationships > site: physical and cultural characteristics of the place ex/ the parliament buildings are located on a bluff near the Ottawa River Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes > situation: external relationships involved interaction ex/ London is two hours from Toronto, Ottawa is the capital of Canada o Direction - absolute: NSEW - relative to other places o Distance - absolute: spatial separation > measured in miles, km - relative > transforms units  time, money, routes Scale – relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area o Spatial Distribution - Density: number of objects per unit area - Dispersion: How near or far objects are to each other - Pattern: a theme of recurring events or objects o Regions - conceptual constructs > spatial expressions of ideas > areas of spatial similarity - bring order from diversity - have location, boundaries, and can be hierarchically arranged - Formal regions > uniformity in one or a limited number of related physical or cultural features ex/ The Corn Belt, The Canadian Shield - Functional Regions > a spatial system > trade areas or transportation networks o Evolution of Geographic Thought - dominated by isolated research by individual scholars > ancient Greece, Egypt, China - marine navigation, mapmaking, printing atlases, exploration - found answers to many questions about the general shape of the earth and ways of putting spatial information on maps - groups and societies > early 1800s: organized interlinking of research > national societies with interest in exploration: Royal Geographical Society The American Geographical Society 1852 > National Geographic Society 1881 > dominated by university and research geographers > The Association of American Geographers 1905, Institute of British Geographers 1933, Canadian Association of Geographers 1951 o Environmental Determinism - contention that the natural environment is the sole determining factor in shaping all human culture > Ellen Semple, Ellesworth Huntington - Griffith Taylor believed in the Stop-Go Theory (determined by nature), there is a choice of pace but not direction Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes > he said that Australia was very limited and could only hold so many people, this was very unpopular because it was thought that the country had endless resources - factors of the natural environment determine human culture and actions > the natural environment exerts a controlling force on people and culture o Possibilism - maintains that in any aspect of culture, nature presents humans with a number of alternatives from which to choose and thus in some sense allows them to determine their own future - humans can conquer their physical environment through technology - stresses more of a two way relationship > the environment affects us so we create technology to master it o Four Traditions of Geography 1. Earth Science - study of the physical earth > lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and the energy and material flows between them ex/ weather, river systems - physical geography as represented by geomorphology, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and oceanography 2. Culture-Environment - the influence of the environment upon humankind - humankind as agent to environmental destruction 3. Location - long standing belief in Western thought has been the separation from the happenings of experience such aspects as distance, form, direction, and position - Immanuel Kant: the notion of space as a category including sucha aspects as distance, form, direction, and position - Ancindt records of Greece, sailing distances coastline and landmark maps, Ptolemy map 2 century AD - the use of maps, geometry and distance 4. Area Analysis - Strabo: Greek geographer who described all the known world not only where people and things were but the nature of places and people (what they did and how they lived) - regional geography both formal and functional Ch 3: Tools of Geography o Size and scale matters - the earth is just a tiny planet in comparison to Jupiter, a speck compared to the Milky Way - the universe was created with the big bang and is still expanding o What is the Universe made of? - 74%  Dark Energy > causes the acceleration of the expansion of the universe - 22% Dark Matter > has a gravitational effect, causes galaxies to rotate faster than they should - 3.6% intergalactic gas - 0.4% stars Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes o The Earth - the Earth is in an elliptical orbit around the sun > it is closest to the sun (147million km) in Jan 2-5, this is called PERIHELION > it is furthest from the sun (152 million km) in July 3-7, this is called APHELION - it takes 23 hours and 56 minutes to rotate on axis (with respect to the stars) > 24 hours in reference to the sun - polar circumference  40 0008km - equatorial circumference  40 075km - where the sun is directly shining on the earth at a 90° angle is called the subsolar point > the position of this point changes throughout the year > during summer solstice, the subsolar point is directly over the tropic of Capricorn, there is 24h of sunlight in the north pole >during the winter solstice, the subsolar point is also on the tropic of Capricorn o Tides - tides are affected by gravity, the gravitational attraction between the earth and the moon - there are 2 high tides and 2 low tides throughout the day - wherever the moon is facing, the tide is pulled towards the moon and there is high tide directly on the other side of the earth > the moon orbits around the center mass of the earth’s system not the earth, which means there is torque to cause two high tides (centrifugal force) > the sun’s distance affects the level of the tide o Time Zone - the earth rotates upon the axis once each day at 15°/hour > so 15° of longitude equals one hour of time o Maps - essential tools to help them define, explain, and navigate their way through the world - it is an advancement of knowledge people could share from one to another - use scale, direction, and symbols - tool to understanding - makes things observable by recognizing patterns - however, there are limits to maps and they can be misleading o Maps Work - power is a measure of work > maps get things done > maps leverage words > maps are engines that convert social energy to social work social energy  map  knowledge - maps are everywhere - maps can create social change > settles property/boundary disputes o All maps need - scale - a legend - direction indicator o Scale - large scale map 1:1000 > very detailed, but covers a small space - small scale map 1:1000000 Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes > not as detailed but covers a large space > data must be generalized to accommodate the area *a TO map means that the east is at the top, “to orient a map”, orient = Asia = east o Projections - represents the earth’s curved surface as a flat surface - each map projection has its own limitations and should be used only for the purpose for which its design is well suited - cylindrical, planar, conic projections o Map Properties - All maps have distortions > area, shape, distance, direction, scale - conformal: true shape for small areas - equivalent: equal area - no map can be conformal and equivalent at the same time o To make a map - take the earth - reduce and flatten the globe - fill in the space which adds distortion o Great Circle routes - a plane cutting the Earth in half through the centre is a great circle ex/ each pair of meridians form a great circle as does the equatorial parallel - a great circle route is the shortest distance between two places on the Earth’s surface Types of Maps o Types of Maps - Thematic > use various kinds of symbols to record the location of some phenomena > symbols can be qualitative or quantitative > qualitative: to show the distribution of data, uses colours and symbols  interest is where things are found not the amount of object being mapped ex/ different language regions in Africa, political boundaries > quantitative: statistical, shows the spatial characteristics of numerical data ex/ map of world happiness, tuberculosis rates by country, population density - Statistical - Cartogram - Dot Map - Chloropleth > uses different colours or tones to represent different classes/ranges - Isoline > use lines to represent set values ex/ contour maps - Mental > constructed in your mind and distorts the world in some way o Remote sensing - a science of deriving information about the earth’s/planet/object of interest surface from images acquired at a distance Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes ex/ trying to determine the type of animal from its footprints - objective: to understand how resolution, spatial and spectral, affects feature identification > Spatial resolution  typically pixels may correspond to square areas on the ground ranging in size from <1 to >1000 sq metres > spectral resolution  the number of different wavelength bands recoded – usually equivalent to the number of sensors carried by the satellite - airphotos > vertical airphotos  stereogram - satellite images - scale S = f/H where f = focal length and H = height of camera - Active > when the imager is sending energy/radio waves toward the earth that bounce back and reflect the image - Passive > when satellites just collect information and data reflected from the earth - Satellites can be > geostationary: satellites that follow the rotation of the earth and stay above the same spot (altitude of 35786km) > Polar: go around the poles, able to collect global data on a daily basis for a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric monitoring application; over the course of a nine days, it can cover the entire planet - problems of remote sensing > the question of availability (satellite might not be in position) > the question of truth > the question of sampling o Image Understanding - what form of radiation? - how radiation was gathered? - what is the scale? - what is the resolution? - are patterns related to things not visible? - what errors are present? - when was the image acquired? Question: How long, in time, would one orbit of a geostationary satellite take? a. one year b. one lunar orbital period 27.3 days c. one day 24 hours d. 23 hours and 56min o Global positioning system (GPS) - a US owned utility - provides users with positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services - consistes of a nominal constellation of 24 to 31 operating satellites that transmit one way signals that give the current GPS satellite position and time o Geographic information Systems - a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically reference information - location data with tabular data known as attribute data - every layer has a different type of data Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes ex/ data identified according to their locations - can provide answers to interesting questions by allowing us to view, analyze and interpret data that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends > what is found where and how much is there? > what is nearby? > what trends are occurring? - two varieties of GIS: > raster (grid)  can store a lot of data > vector (curve)  can only store a limited amount of data Unit 4: Cultural Geography (ch 7) o Culture - arts: literature, painting, music, dance - specialized behavioral patterns, understandings, and adaptations that summarize the way of life of a group of people ex/ system of shared beliefs (Religion), communications in all forms (language, art, clothing, food, body gestures) - learned behaviour, everything you are minus your biology - culture glides through peoples’ consciousness, breaking along its banks, accumulating and deposting silt, meandering through paths of least resistance, changing route, drying up, spilling its banks, forever flowing like a great river, islands form and are washed away. Isolated pockets get left behind. It nurtures, nourishes, and destroys. Ideas move with the wind and the currents and the countercurrents. Trends change, flowing mostly with the current of dominant culture. A few swim against this current, while others get trapped in ox bow lakes, isolated from the mainstream. o Landscape - ways of reading landscapes is important for cultural geographers - “land”  environment - “scape”  representation or view of - how to view the environment? > biased towards our culture - how do we organize what we see? > how to describe, simplify the things we see o Reading Landscapes - landscape as examples of: > nature, habitat > wealth, economic system > history, social problems - the more ways you can see, the more questions and more answers you can find o Guide to reading landscapes - clue to culture - change in human landscape - means a change in doing and thinking - natural landscape and human landscape shape each other (environmental possibilism) - remember personal bias - “environment sustains us as creatures; landscape displays us as cultures” D. Meinig o Characteristics of Culture - people: produce, reproduce, sustain, and modify culture > culture is traditional and dynamic, some cultures have great tension between old and Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes new - change and consistency - scale varies from Global to Local, masses to individuals - plurality: many cultures exist within a society 1. Cultures overlap in space 2. Cultures do not exist in a vacuum > requires people to exist 3. Cultural groups may conflict o Components of Culture 1. Cultural Traits - individual units of learned behavior that are shared by members of a cultural group ex/ object – fishhook, technique – weaving a fish net, belief – in the fish spirits, attitude – eating fish makes you strong 2. Cultural Complex - cultural traits that are functionally interrelated ex/ suburban life – use of cars, children, house, lawn, pets 3. Cultural Regions - portion of the earth’s surface occupied by people sharing cultural traits and complexes ex/ the political organizations of societies, form of economy, housing forms 4. Cultural Realm - set of cultural regions that share similar characteristics ex/ Anglo-America, Latin America o Structure of Culture - ideological, technological, sociological subsystems are integrated to form the culture - mentifact  home, artifact  house, sociofact  family 1. Ideological subsystem > consists of ideas, beliefs, and knowledge of the culture > the ways they are expressed in speech > mentifacts: religion, science 2. Technological subsystem >the material objects and techniques that allow a culture (people) to live > objects such as tools that enable people to feed, clothe, house, defend, transport, and amuse themselves > artifacts: bicycles, shoes, glass cup 3. Sociological subsystem > the sum of the expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relationships ex/ mother-child >sociofacts (artifacts on a social scale) o Cultural stereotypes - can lead to biases and prejudices o Socialcultural system - a human population is viewed: 1. In its ecological context 2. As one of the many subsystems of a larger ecological system Unit 4: Earth Processes Structure – the nature and arrangement of landform materials Process – that refers to all phenomena associated with the shaping of geologic structures and Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes material; includes endogenous processes (diastrophism and volcanism) and exogenous processes (mass wasting, weathering, erosion) Stage – sequential changes accomplished by processes as they shape the structure, the amount of work done Exogenic (exogenous) – processes that occur at or near the Earth’s surface that wear away (denudation) its surface; powered by isolation (Sun) which provide the energy for water, air, and ice, under the influence of gravity Endogenic (endogenous) – processes that occur beneath the Earth’s surface that can lift its surface, powered by internal heat that results in movement of the surface, mountain building, diastrophism, and volcanism o Continental drift - the present continents once formed a single land mass that drifted apart, the continents are described as icebergs of low density granite floating on a sea of denser basalt - the continents were once a giant land mass called “Pangaea” o Paradigm Shift - the development of plate tectonic theory illustrates how scientific thinking evolves - scientific understanding is organized around theories and models that are used to interpret observations allowing the developing of hypotheses that tell us how we view the world and to test that view - occur when problems with the old world view (conventional thinking) and enough data pointing towards new ideas that lead to discarding the old ideas, the new ideas better explain the available data and offers different insights that lets us see the world in new ways ex/ plate tectonics, quantum mechanics, evolution Unit 4 – Geomorphology Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes o Mass Wasting - spontaneous movement of material down slope in response to gravity - If the stress of the environment, etc. exceeds the strength of the earth material, the material will move/collapse - If a gravitational force acting on a slops exceeds its resisting force, then slope failure (mass wasting) occur - Slope’s sheer strength is result of cohesion and the amount of internal friction between the particles comprising the slope - The steepest angle that particles on a slope can maintain without losing its stability is known as its angle of response Fa l l Sl u m p Slide F l ow Cr e e p Wa t e r   S a t u r a t e d e n t d i m L i q u e f a c t i on W a t e r   c p l e t e l y  s u n d su F r i c t   b e t w e e n   g r a i n s  al l gains and e l im inate s all  h ol d s   p a r t i c l e t h e rg g r a i n   t o  g r a t a c t   – m a t e r i a l  sf l ow C l a y Mi n e ra l s Fall Slump Slide “ H ou s e   of   C a r d s ”   S t r u c A f t e r   t h e   d i s s  of   S a l t s h e l d   te t h e r   b y  s a l t s &   C om p a c t i on Flow Creep Water Saturated SediLiquefaction Water filled pore spaces completely surrounds Friction between grgrain to grain contact –s all  holds particles togmaterial flows Clay Minerals “House of Cards” StAfter the dissolution of Salts held together by sa& Compaction Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes Mass Movements - Slide > Incorporates more water than fall/slump - Flow > Even more water moving land - Creep > Happens slowly > Because of freeze / thaw Water is key in the above movements surrounds all grains  SaturatedS  ando grain contact.ll grain  g Creep Angle o f Repose Dry and Ang  le       i s  t h e  steepest angle at which a pile o f unconsoildated grains remains stable,  controlled by  the frictional contact between the grains.  Dr  aterials the angle increases with increasing grain  size, usuallyb etween 30 and 37 Wte Sand Surface tension o fa  thin film o fwater  hodls grains together Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes Frank Landslide on Turtle Mountain: CASE STUDY ON EXAM?? East side of Turtle mountain in the SW Alberta April 29,1903, 4:10am 82 million tones (30mill cubic m) of limestone crashed from that summit of turtle mountain Dimensions of rock mass that fell 150m deep 425m high 1km wide happened through carbonation Mass Wasting: gravity pulling earth materials to lower and lower elevations Types (depending on moisture available) SEE DIAGRAM ABOVE Creep: drier conditions, very slow Fall: dry, but much faster than creep (rockfall) Flow: extremely wet (mudflow) Slump Slide Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes Anticline: when the rock is folded, it puts enormous pressure on the rock, and it splinters o Weathering - physical actions called disintegration > large rocks to small rocks  change in size > can be caused by frost action, organic (tree roots, lichen), salt crystal growth, unloading - chemical actions called decomposition > can be caused by dissolution, chelation, hydrolysis, carbonations, hydration, isomorphous replacement, oxidation and reductions > maximum rate in areas that are hot and moist, chemical weathering is more common in these areas - generally occurs at the surface of Earth materials o Rock breakup vs surface area - the process of weathering gradually speeds up because of increased surface area o Erosion - process of transportation of weathered material - work is done by moving materials - agents of erosion  water, wind, air , ice - water does the most work/erosion o Toba Eruption theory - Toba was the earth’s largest quaternary caldera supervolcanic event that occurred about 74000 years BP - the human race has very little genetic differentiation, the most diversity is in Africa - this eruption could have wiped out the human race at that time and caused a “genetic bottleneck” Unit 5: Hydrology o Earth’s water - 97.22% of the earth’s water is seawater - 2.78% freshwater > 77.78% surface, 11.02% groundwater, 11.02% deep groundwater, 0.18% soil moisture > 99.357% of surface water is in ice and glaciers o Evaporations - the greatest potential for evaporation occurs when the water is warm and the air is cold o Potential evapotranspitation - the amount of moisture that would evaporate and transpire if adequate moisture was available - it is the amount of water lost under optimum moisture conditions - the moisture demand - POTET or PE o Flow of water - affluent > the water table is above the level of water in the stream and water is added to the stream (humid climate) - influent conditions Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes > water table is below the level of the water in the stream and the moisture from the stream is being lost to the ground, this makes the water level decline over time (dry climate) Humi diat e Ard Ciat e o:CorGomss - laminar > flow with low velocity - turbulent > flow with higher velocity - in a straight channel, maximum velocity occurs near the centre and surface of a stream - Q = AV = constant > when area is small, velocity is large, when the area is large, velocity is small - Q = discharge = the amount of water flowing in the stream per unit time > Q = w·d·v > where w = channel width, d = depth, v = stream velocity o Transportation of materials by rivers - fluvial erosion is the most important natural agent of erosion - streams move material by > bedload movement  large particles > suspension of sediment  smaller particles, water will look like the type of sediment (muddy etc) > materials in solution  smallest - asymmetry of stream flow causes the valley to be eroded strongly where flow is greatest, meanders thus migrate sideways and downstream, thereby developing a flat floored valley o River/Drainage patterns - dendritic, trellis, radial, parallel, rectangular, annular, deranged o Horton stream numbers - when a stream is graphed by its stream orders, it will always be a straight line o William Morris Davis - described river systems with 3 labels 1. Youth > v shaped valley, steep slopes, downward and headward erosion, waterfalls 2. Maturity > floodplain develops, meandering channel starts, erosion downward and from side to side Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes 3. Old Age > many large meanders, wide floodplain, levees, oxbow lakes o Measuring stream Flow - hydrographs - discharge over time - can be measured constantly or aggregated to monthly flows - by measuring the elevation of the stream, you can find the discharge Forest: 80-90% of precipitation moves into the ground Agriculture: 40-50% of precipitation moves into the ground Suburban: 20-30% of precipitation moves into the ground Urban: 0-10% of precipitation moves into the ground o Floods - Climatological > long continued steady rain or rainfall events > local intense storm on a small basin > rapid snowmelt > rain on snow > ice jams > storm surges – hurricanes - Catastrophic > earthquakes, landslides > dam failures > tsunami > ice dammed lakes > volcanic eruptions o Intensifying factors - basin characteristics > topography Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes > vegetation cover > soils and geology > effects of humans > shape of basin - Changes in basin character > fire > urbanization > deforestation > drainage basin modifications > encroachment and obstruction > buildings, bridges, canals > reservoirs o Floods: Recurrence Intervals - “100 year flood” is a misnomer - statistical techniques, through a process called frequency analysis, are used to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a given discharge (or precipitation or drought event) - the recurrence interval is based on the probability that the given event will be equaled or exceeded in any given year - equation: RI = (n+1)/m > where n = number of years in the record, m = magnitude ranking Recurrence Probability of Percent chance of interval in years occurrence in any given occurrence in any given year year 100 1 in 100 1 50 1 in 50 2 25 1 in 25 4 10 1 in 10 10 5 1 in 5 20 2 1 in 2 50 Waves – surface waves that occur on the free surface of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and canals etc; generated and affected by the local winds Coastal environment – Longshore drift – the transportation of sediments (generally sand) along a coast at an angle to the shoreline which is dependent on prevailing wind direction, swash, and backwash; this process occurs in the littoral zone Coastal landforms – the characteristic features and patterns of land in a coastal zone subject o marine and subaerial processes of erosion and deposition Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes Erosion – when materials are removed from the surface and changed into something else Deposition – geological process by which material is added to a landform or land mass by wind and water Human impact on coastal environments – Fetch – the length of water over which a given wind has blown; determines the size of waves produced o Wavelength - a function of wind velocity and fetch - wave height is controlled by wind velocity - fetch and gradient of surface water Midterm Exam Review 90-100 MCs 8-10 SAs 1 or more SAs will come from the lab more focus on material after quiz Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes Unit 7: Historical Geography o The Dust Bowl - Where was it? > Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas - moisture can come from the Pacific or the Gulf of Mexico > ADIABATIC HEATING: moist air from the Pacific descends the Rockies as hot, dry air into the dust bowl area > CORIOLIS EFFECT: moist air from the gulf of Mexico is deflected to the right and never reaches the dust bowl - What was it? > during the 1930s was a period of severe drought with dust storms > caused major ecological and agricultural damage to the North American prairie Ecosystem – a functioning, interacting system composed of one or more living organisms and their effective environment both physical and ecological o The ecosystem of the dust bowl - the ecosystem was initially balanced - short grass steppe (prairie) - low precipitation amounts and very variable both spatially and temporarily o History of immigration in the Dust Bowl - this area was settled after the 1860s, settlement was encouraged into these “western lands” by the Homestead Act and the transcontinental railroad, and waves of new immigrants > this brought on cattle and sheep and overgrazing > cold winters and drought then lead to more land under cultivation - more immigrants from the “humid” east > wetter conditions in earlier part of the 20 century - technological improvements of mechanized farming  larger farms - WWI price increase of agricultural products, more land under plow - poor practice with land bare of vegetation burning stubble - in the 1930s, severe drought cause the dry non vegetated surface to be blown away >farming practices exceeded the carrying capacity of land > DEFLATION  wind erosion > the US Soil Conservation Services formed in 1933 is now called the Natural Resources Conservation o Drought - dry conditions that prevail for a period of time, how long and how dry depends - drought is in the eyes of the beholder, contextual - drought depends on impacts, not just on precipitation - meteorological drought: defined on the basis of the degree of dryness in comparison to some normal or avg amount and the duration of the dry period - agricultural drought: links various characteristic so meteorological or hydrological drought to agricultural impacts, focusing on precipitation shortages, usually linked to fairly short term where crop yields are affected - hydrological drought: longer term, affects soil moisture and stream flow, the recharge rate of water into the soil, the deeper the soil, the more dry it is; one rainfall is not enough to recharge the land because it is simply too dry - socioeconomic drought: associate the supply and demand of some economic goods Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes with elements of meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural drought; can affect hydroelectricity, water supply - hazard x vulnerability = risk > hazards (natural event): climatology, probability, forecasts > vulnerability (social factor): population growth, urbanization, technology, land use, environmental policies Political Geography Political Geography – the study of the special expression of the organization and distribution of political phenomena; the study of boundaries, their delimitation and effects o Political Geography - the political organization of space is as old as human history - political organization of societies are a fundamental an expression of culture and cultural difference as are forms of economy or religious beliefs - nationality is a basic element in cultural variation among people and political geography traditionally has been interested in countries or states o How many countries are there in the world? - there is no definitive answer - as of 2008, the UN has 192 official countries - but this is constantly changing, it also depends on how you DEFINE a country - because humans are animals, we have an instinctive need for control of space > territorial control allows you to force weaker members out in order to live better - political territories are expressed in all different political units, but all are based in animal instincts o State boundaries - rivers, heights of land (mountains) geometric lines (lat/long), coastlines - if a river is a political boundary, the change of course can cause problems (meandering rivers/braided streams) > nevertheless, some rivers are political boundaries (ex/ Rio Grande) - boundaries often change because of colonization and innovation of countries - landlocked states are states that are trapped around other states and have no access to water > causes issues with import/export because they have to go through other countries which are sometimes hostile - the disconnectivity of railway lines and roads determine political boundaries > agricultural differences are also visible between many states - Africa was divided by imperial Europe to suit their own purposes but are dysfunctional in terms of the cultures represented within the political boundaries o Heroic age of Antarctic ice exploration (late 1800s-1920s) - Antarctica became the focus of an international effort which resulted in intensive geological and scientific research, launching 16 expeditions from 8 different countries Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes > claims had been made but there was no real political control > claims are only legitimate if other states recognize the claim o States - have full control over who can come into/leave the state - to be a state, a state must be recognized by other states as a state - territory and body of people who are politically bound together - full sovereign control over its internal and external affairs - external affairs  relations with other states o Nation - a body of people who are bound together culturally - frequently same language, race, religion, place of origin, or history - national identity  taught through symbols, songs, history (it is CULTURE) - a NATION STATE is a state reflective of a nation o Political Control - Unitary form > authority is highly centralized ex/ UK, China - federal form > there are smaller political powers that are given some form of political power/responsibility > authority is decentralized ex/ Canada, US o Ecumene - consists of a small territory with most of the power - most important socioeconomic elements that allow a state to function with the densest communication and transportation - chief cities and aggregates of people site of industry and post industrial activity o Boundaries of the state 1. Subsequent Boundaries - those drawn after a population has become established in an area ex/ France 2. Antecedent Boundaries - precede the close settlement and development of the region they encompass ex/ Canada and US 3. Superimposed boundaries - the converse of antecedent boundaries, established after the area has been closely settled ex/ India and Pakistan Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes o State Identity - Centrifugal Forces > pull a state apart ex/ corridor rights, meandering river that changes boundaries, minority groups from neighbor state, internal separatist movement etc - Centripetal Forces > keep state together o Boundaries into Ocean Space - UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the law of the seas) - INTERNAL WATERS (Landward of Baselines): subject to laws of the state, right of passage may be suspended if vessel is a threat to peace, order, and security of the state - TERRITORIAL SEA (Seaward of Baselines): Sovereignty extends over waters, seabed, and airspace; not to exceed 12n.miles (22.4km), vessels have right of innocent passage, this can be suspended temporarily if vessel is a threat to state’s security - CONTIGUOUS SEA may not extend beyond 24n.miles seaward from baselines, State has right to control if a threat exists to security of state or territorial water, state has right of pursuit into - EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE (EEZ): 200n.miles from baselines, coastal state has right to conserve and manage living and non living resources. In areas that are ice- covered, coastal state has right to adopt and enforce laws and regulation for the prevention and control of marine pollution Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes o The Georges Bank - one of the richest fishing grounds in the world for scallops, haddock, cod, and flounder - supplied both Canada and the US with a large stock of fish for many centuries - both countries tried to settle the dispute with a treaty providing for joint fishing and management but were unsuccessful - so they both referred the conflict to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Netherlands - Canada claimed slightly less than half of the area while the US claimed the whole bank - this issue reflects many political-geographic concerns: the significance of boundaries to nation states and their potential to cause disputes, the growing significance of maritime boundaries as states seek both to protect and to exploit he resources of the sea, and the use of international authorities to resolve disputes peacefully Unit 9: Atmospheric Processes o Atmosphere - an envelope of gases that is intimately related to all aspects of the earth’s surface which stretches from the surface of the eart to 10000+ km into space - atmospheric gases rapidly decrease with increasing distance from the surface > due to less air pressure, particles are less dense/farther apart o Mean Free Path - distance a molecule travels before hitting another molecule - at sea level, free path is 6.5x10 cm - at 100km elevation, free path is 10 cm - at 160km elevation, free path is 5000cm o The Earth’s Atmosphere - 97% of gases are within 30km of the surface - about 90% of gases are within 15km - about 50% of gases are within 6km o Composition of the atmosphere - non variant gases > over 99% of the atmospheric gases > N 78%, O 21%, Ar 0.93%, CO2 0.038% > traces of neon, helium, methane, krypton > always in the proportion under 80 km - variant gases > H 2 vapour is highly variable in time and place, O 3 NH 3 H 2, CO > water vapour is the primary source of atmospheric moisture  produces weather > also important in absorption of radiant energy, concentrated in the lowest part of atmosphere, mostly below 3km and little vapour above 8km - impurities > help create weather/clouds > minute solid particles > terrestrial dust, meteoric dust > salt from oceans, pollen grains o Vertical Zones - classification based on composition > Homosphere: 80 km, uniform ratio > Homopause: 80-88km, transition zone > Heterosphere: 88km+ and above layer arranged by molecular weights, N and O 2n 2 Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes lower heterosphere, He and H in higher heterosphere 2 - classification based on temperature (most common) > troposphere  closest to the ground, where we live  has normal lapse rate (decrease in temp w/ increase in elevation) 6.4C/1000m  zone of weather > tropopause  zone above troposphere where air temp remains constant with altitude  changes in elevation depending where you are in the world (higher at equator, lower at poles) > Stratosphere  increase in air temperature with an increase in elevation  contains ozone layer  weatherless zone (little water vapour, condensation impossible)  abnormal lapse rate (inverse) > Stratopause > Mesosphere  50-100km  temp decrease normal lapse rate, possible to have weather/noctilucent clouds > Mesopause  temp remains constant with altitude > Thermosphere  increase in air temp with increase in elevation (would still be cold due to lack of atmospheric gas)  heat zone, inverse lapse rate  high velocity particles Part 2 Energy o Radiation - temperature dependent, K or C - Earth’s source energy is radiation from the sun - energy can be told in terms of its wavelength > gamma rays (shortwave)  bottom > infra-red, ultra violet, micro  middle > radio waves (longwave)  top > all the same but with different wavelengths o Characteristics of the Sun - Radius: 109x the earth’s - mass: 333000x the earth’s mass - rotation: ~27days - surface temp: 5700K - core temp: 15millionK - core density: gold x8 - composition: 70%H, 28%He, 2%C, N, O Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes - goes through a cycle of energy states > we are currently in a high energy state > more high output (energy state), most sunspots on the sun > cycles: Maunder Minimum (1600-1750), Dalton Minimum (1750-1950), Modern Maximum (1950-present) *not like clockwork, no set times 2 - solar irradiance: 1366W/m is avg o Sunspots - dark and cool regions on the surface of the sun - have darker inner region (Umbra) surrounded by a lighter ring (Penumbra) - usually appear in groups that form over hours/days and last for days/weeks o Sun - hydrogen is made in the core, takes thousands of years to get to the surface - Once it gets to the surface, it radiates into space - sun reflects most energy in the visible part of the spectrum - only small portion goes to Earth - gives shortwave radiation to Earth, Earth then emits it back into space via longwave radiation - Deuterium and Tritium combine  generates Neutron and Helium as well as energy - over its 4.5 billion year history, the sun has slowly increased in brightness as it has burned hydrogen to form helium in its core, it is now some 30% brighter > this will cause more energy to be emitted and the Earth will get hotter - short wave radiation emitted from sun + shortwave radiation absorbed by the Earth + longwave radiation emitted from the Earth = Energy Balance o Radiation Properties - temperature dependent K > every object in the universe emits radiation (because they have temp) > affects types of waves - black body e = sigma T (Stefan-Boltzmann Law) > hotter objects emit more energy Jasmine Ho Geography 1100 Notes - black body curves for sun/earth - max wavelength = a/T a is constant (a=2897) - radiation passing through a unit area is inversely proportional to the square of the distance 1/d2 > the further away from the energy/radiation, the less you receive > double the distance = ¼ the energy - as an object becomes hotter, the quantity of radiation increases (height of curve) and the quantity of radiation (wavelength) becomes shorter - gases in the atmosphere selectively absorb a variety of the shorter wavelengths of solar system - it is hotter at the equator because the sun’s energy is much more direct vs the other areas of earth where the radiation is more spread out over a larger area 6 o Radiation - Perihelion 147x10 (jan) - aphelion 152x10 (july) - E-S distance does not determine seasons - “solar constant” = 1.96 calories/cm /min = 1366 watts/m  now called TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE o Thermodynamics - coined by James Prescott Joule in 1849 to describe the relations betwe
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