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Lecture 8

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Department
Geography
Course
Geography 1400F/G
Professor
Godwin Arku
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 8 The Classification of Economic Activities Categories of Economic Activity 1. Primary  What are primary activities? o Economic activities that are concerned directly with natural resources of any kind  Examples of primary activities include: o Agriculture o Fishing o Gathering industries o Extractive industries (ex: oil extraction) 2. Secondary  What are secondary activities? o Economic activities that process, transform, fabricate, or assemble the raw materials derived from primary activities, or that reassemble, refinish, or package manufactured goods  Examples of secondary activities include: o Manufacturing o Processing o Construction o Power production 3. Tertiary  What are tertiary activities? o Activities where people offer their knowledge and time to improve productivity, performance, potential, and sustainability  Examples of tertiary activities include: o Wholesaling and retailing o Financial services o Personal and professional services 4. Quaternary  What are quaternary activities? o Economic activities that deal with the handling and processing of knowledge and information as well as distribution  Examples of quaternary activities include: o Information o Research o Management 5. Quinary  Executive decision makers o Involves high level decision making in large organizations Classification of Economic Systems Types of Economic Systems 1. Subsistence Economy o Use of relatively simple technology in the production of goods and services o Goods produced are mostly for individual and family needs o Little or no exchange occurs outside of the immediate or extended family 2. Commercial Economy o Goods produced are exchanged through competitive markets o Price and availability of goods and services are determined by demand and supply forces 3. Planned Economy o Production of goods and services, price, quantities, distributions, and its locations are determined by governmental program o Associated with communist-controlled societies o Few existing communist-controlled societies are Cuba and North Korea Agriculture  Definition: o The science and practice of farming, including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of livestock  Key fact: Types of Agriculture 1. Subsistence  Farming for direct consumption by the producers (i.e. family), not for sale Forms of subsistence farming: 1. Extensive  Cultivation of large areas of land and low inputs of labour  i.e. product per land unit is low and population densities is also low 2. Intensive  cultivation of small holdings through the expenditure of great amounts of labour per unit of land  i.e. product per land unit is high and population densities is also high Examples of extensive subsistence farming: 1. Nomadic: form of subsistence agriculture based on herding of domesticated animals  Some common characteristics: o Adapted to dry climates where planting of crops is impossible o Most extensive type of land use system because of regular movements of herds to different pastures  Some key facts: o 15 million people on 20% of earth’s land area o Camels, sheep, and goats preferred animals in North Africa and Middle East; horse in Central Asia o Very territorial o Transhumance migration  The future: o A declining form of agriculture due to:  Improvement in transport systems  Government settlement policies  Changes in climatic conditions  Economic and social changes  Examples of extensive subsistence farming: 2. Shifting Cultivation: a system in which farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the field within which cultivation occurs  2 key features: o Farmer
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