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Geography Lecture #2 - September 19 - 26 2013.docx

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Western University
Geography 1400F/G
Anthony Weis

Geography as a Social Sciencehuman interactions through various places and through timeEarth and ValleyHow has climate varied though time The Riff Valley in East Africa is the place where origins of the human species have been found and generated here In time of human species and evolution there has only been one major glacial advance and radiated the human species on earth Hominid line modern human species is about 200000 years old Hominidae line is the great apes which are Chimps Humans Bonobos Gorillas and Orangutans Humans share more DNA with Bonobos and ChimpsChimps and Bonobos share more DNA with humans than Gorillas and Orangutans 25 million years ago is the rise of the hominid line 25 years ago is the hominid line and the process of evolution Great apes are declining all over AfricaOrangutan decline is massive because of logging for palm oilWhat Happened during the major glacial advanceCountries began to get connected This is included North America Alaska to Russia by using the Baring Straight Continental shelves were visible and crossable land bridges As water freezes and dries up we see land Australia and South East Asia were connected by land bridges North America was the last place to get peopled When people finally came to North America animals were vastly different very big and the hunting eventually killed them offlike the woolly mammoth If Earth was a week humans would be around for the last three minutes on Sunday and most of those last three minutes people were hunter gatherers 150000 years ago radiate out of the riff valley and about 7080000 years ago they leave to the middle east and southsouth east Asia Eurasia and Australia NO LONGER IN AFRICA North America was the last place to be inhabited by humansFamous cave painting in Southern France were found to be about 30000 years oldthrough carbon dating 40000 years ago there was human presence in Europe To make art there needs to be human intellect LGM Last Glacial Maximumthe exposure of continental shelves connecting Eurasia to North America 2000012000 years agothis is when people came to the AmericaFrom 20000 to present this get warm glaciers retreat we get lakes and sheiiit and sea levels rise and the land crossing is now waterle tear 14000 first evidence of humans in Southern South AmericaLast 12 000 years is the HoloceneMore like 11500 years ago Relative climatic stability pretty warm too and allowed for agriculturea transformative thing at this time was the Neolithic revolution rise of agriculture We now come into civilizationscities states communities Modern agriculture was in Mesopotamia and the Fertile Valleyfertile valley middle eastIrancommonly though It was actually in China independently of Mesopotamia and South America 90007000 years ago was agricultural innovations At this point we see people manipulating plants and animals to be more nutritional People organized landscapes of wolf plants and animals All of worlds major livestock were goats sheep cattle pigs and poultry they came from Asiaonly turkeys came from the Americas Nikolai Vavilovdiscovered domestication of animals botanist early agriculture genetics During era of Stalin he got in a conflict and was put in prison and died political prisoner Later on Russians realized how important he was and then they commemorated him All the innovation of Holocene was happening around ITCZ Agriculture got rid of huntergatherer societies
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