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Geo 1400 Lecture 2.docx

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Western University
Geography 1400F/G
Don Lafreniere

Geo Lecture 2 Inductive Reasoning: Aform of reasoning that makes generalizations • Steps include: o Observation o Patterns Observed o Explanation  “Childhood poverty leads to lower life expectancy” Deductive Reasoning: is a form of reasoning which start with a general principle to specific circumstances • Steps include: o Starts with a sense that a general principle exists o Research is then carried out to determine if it applies in specific circumstances o Experiments are designed to prove the validity of the generalization o If shown to be valid – law/theory is established Two Major Types of Data Resources 1. Primary Data Sources: a. These are collected by the researcher(s) b. Examples: questionnaires, interviews, observational techniques, etc 2. Secondary Data Sources: a. These are collected by somebody else b. Examples: archives, historical account and images, newspapers, maps, photographs, etc. Key Concepts: • Space: o Areal Unit o Absolute (objective – can be measured): heart of mapmaking and spatial analysis o Relative (perceptual): socially-produced and subject to change • Location: o Refers to a particular position within space, usually a position on the earth’s surface o Locations are both Absolute (measure exactly where you are) and Relative (how far I am from the front – changes) • Application of Absolute and Relative o Site  Absolute location that references the immediate area o Situation  Relative location with reference to larger spatial relationships • Direction: o Absolute Direction  Based on cardinal points: north, south, east and west o Relative or Relational Direction  Giving someone directions  Ex. “go west” or “out west”  Ex. “competition from the far Eastern countries” • Place o Refers not only to a location, but also, and more specifically, to the values we associate with that location o Alocation with a special identity (ex. Home or neighborhood) o “Place” is not about where we live, but rather how and where we live o Can it be a space? - Everything that is place is also a space but not everything that is a space is not necessarily a place o Aplace is different for every individual • Distance o Tobler’s First Law of Geography:  “Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things” o Distance Decay  Level of interaction between places is influenced by distance  How? In terms of time, in terms of cost  Decline in an activity with increasing distance from point of origin o Friction of Distance  Measure of the restraining effects (cost, time) of distance decay on human movement. • At what distance are you willing to travel to the following places? o Work, Shop at a mall, Favorite restaurant  Critical Distance – “when it is too far” o Challenge to assumptions of distance decay  Innovation in transportation and communications • We travel faster, have the internet, cellphones  Improvement in friction of distance • Universal accessibility– “amazon ships everywhere” • Ability to record interactions (facebook, twitter) no longer limited to face to face interactions • Influences on how we view distance o Accessibility: ease by which a location can be reached by other locations o Interaction: linkages between locations o Agglomeration: clustering/grouping of human activity to minimize friction of distance (ex. Malls) o Deglomeration: dispersion of human activity – opposite of agglomeration (ex. Exurbs, vacation cottage) • Social Distance o Measure of the difference between people in social likeness, not locational distance o Differences include: social class/wealth, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, sexual orientation • Regions o An area with one or more traits in common o Extremely difficult to make a map of o Types of regions:  Formal: displays uniformity in one or two limited features • Ex. Great lakes  Functional or Nodal: locations that relate to each other through a common focal point • Ex. GTA Maps • Birds eye view of the earth, shows us where places are located • Cartographic Map o Two dimensional spatial representation of the environment • Types of Maps o General Maps  Topographic Maps  Political Maps  Road Maps o Thermatic Maps (data maps)  Show you things you might miss otherwise • Relationships you may not see if you didn’t map it  Choropleth (coloring geographic regions based on val
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