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Lecture 3

Geography 1400F/G Lecture 3: Lecture 3

Course Code
GEOG 1400F/G
Godwin Arku

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Lecture 3
Globalization: the increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging
processes of economic, political, and cultural change
o(another def) The process of reducing barriers bt countries and encouraging closer
economic, social and political interaction
o(another def) An accelerating set of processes involving flows that encompass ever-
greater numbers of the world spaces and that lead to increasing integration and
interconnectivity among those spaces
1) Transforming the human world from a collection of connected, single
entity but often very different places which differences are greatly
2) It refers to “processes”
Series of actions or changes that brings results (outcome)
3) Geographical implications – interconnection bt spaces and people
How people of all background interact with the way we live
1) Emergence of global communication system that link all regions on the
planet instantaneously
Ex. If something happened in Wall St, would affect other countries
2) Transnational corporate strategies that have created global corporations
Offices in diff countries
3) New forms of production of goods and services
Produced in one, shipped in another, another for consumption
4) Emergence of new centers of production
5) Emergence of global financial systems
Ex. if the value of US and Canadian dollar
6) Emergence of new forms of technology
7) Market economies that replaced state controlled economies
8) A plethora of planetary goods and services that have arisen to fulfill
consumer demand
9) Global agreement that promote free trade
1) Global info, education and media, lifestyle, entertainment, fashion,
Ex. CNN, McDonalds
1) Global political institutions, power blocs, democracy as the dominant
system of governance
1) Global ecosystem, pollution, pandemics, conservation movements and
Interpreting, Conceptualizing, and Measuring Globalization

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3 interpretations
oThomas L. Friedmand (2005) described the world is “flat”, a result of improved
communications and the free movement of capital. The global economy has
become a level playing field as societies around the world conform to free-market
principles and practices (intensifying)
oJohn Ralston Saul (2005) says that globalization has petered out, regional
inequalities arising resulting from successes and failures of globalization, failed to
make the world a better place
oPankaj Ghemawat (2011) says that globalization is exaggerated and we live in a
semi-globalized world (ex. Less than 1% of American companies have foreign
operations, sixty years ago half of the world’s car production was controlled by 2
companies, now 6)
Does Local Still Matter?
Your home, community, family, friends give shape and meaning to your life
Friction of distance still prevalent in consideration of decision making
People want to see some specific culture, or their specific region recognized
oEx. First Nations
o2 major forces
1) Technology change
Through internet, satellite communication, and other innovations have
shrunk time and space compression
2) Global Capitalism
Embrace of capitalism, neoliberal, free market policies
Capitalism most common
oIs Globalization new? (yes AND no)
1) NO
European journey of world discovery during the Dark ages – leading to
global interdependence
The idea that one country can trade with another has always been
Creation of colonial empires – creating global trade connection and
diffusion of European culture
Mass production during the Industrial Revolution – created global search
for raw materials
2) YES (new)
Global scales of activities is larger
Greater speed
Faster bc relational technology
Global integration (interconnectedness)
More countries involved than ever before
Single globalized market (‘global village’)
Vast consumer products
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