Geography 1500F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Arturo Escobar (Anthropologist), African Parks, Indigenous Rights

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1500F: Lecture #6: September 27, 2016: Biodiversity Pat 2
Focus for today:
Biodiversity and cultural diversity
Debates over conservations strategies:
o Hotspot approach
o ‘Fortress’ conservation
o Use of new technologies
Perspectives on biodiversity: Bjorn Lomborg
His position:
o Biodiversity has value we should quantify it
o Focus limited resources on cost-effective conservation strategies (for
o Use to be poster boy that we shouldn’t do anything about climate change
because it wasn’t the best value for money
o Wants to figure out more cost effective ones in terms of benefits for
Protecting forests, wetlands, coral reefs is economically
Great return in money these habitats provide for humans
Creating more and more protected areas is not
Perspectives on biodiversity: Arturo Escobar
Biodiversity is not only a biological concept it also has social meaning
Cultural difference and political autonomy for indigenous people can be seen as
part of biodiversity
o ways of living including culture within human species so we need to take
biodiversity into account
Thinking this way transforms debates over conservation for the futre
o Indigenous rights at the centre on how to do this
^^Two people with contrasting few points… to illustrate there isn’t one dominant way of
thinking about biodiversity right now… for debate
Biodiversity hotspots
Areas with high species diversity and impacts from human activities
Conservation international recognizes 25 hotspots around the world
They cover only 2% of Earth’s land area, but half of plant species and 42% of
land vertebrates are endemic (meaning only live in these regions) regions
Many hot spots around the world refer to map on slides source: Wikimedia
Half of the world’s plant species live in this area and no where else = 40%
Also areas where habitat has been shrinking over time
gorenflo et al. article
“co-occurance of linguistic and biological diversity….”
Areas of high biodiversity coincide with areas of high linguistic diversity
Almost half the languages on earth are found in 35 biodiversity hotspots
o Of these, 2/3 are endemic to the hotspots
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