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Geography (1,355)
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Ch1GEO.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
Geography 2010A/B
Professor
Suzanne Greaves
Semester
Winter

Description
Ch1: Regions of Canada Geography as a discipline - Geography is destiny: location = powerful determinant of the life opportunities & experiences - Regional Identity: person’ association with a place or region and their sense of belonging to a collectivity o Formed by sharing a common space - Regional self-interest: aspirations, concerns and interests of people living in a region and acted on by local politicians o Sometimes such efforts are designed to improve the prospects of their region at the expense of other regions or of the federal government Regional Geography - Regional Geography: study of the geography of regions/ particular part of the world o the interplay between physical and human geography, which results in an understanding of human society, its physical geographical underpinnings, and a sense of place o Goal of regional geography: find what makes a region “tick”  Past: study physical aspects of a region: area of the earth’s surface defined by its distinctive human and/or natural characteristics  Present: human side: physical environment largely mediated through culture, economy & technology Regionalism - Regionalism: division of countries/areas into different natural/political/cultural parts o Region’s Characteristics:  Physical or cultural  Formal or functional  Formal: descriptive uniformly (i.e grasslands)  Functional: interaction (i.e center parts with nodes: newspaper published A, distributed to areas around B)  Boundaries – transition zones  Hierarchy: region inside a region inside a region (doesn’t have to be same kind of region)  Human construct – infinite number of regions - Why Canada not more ‘homogeneous’ o Vast = natural divisions o N/S orientation (Can & US)  Continentialism: policies that promote Canadian trade and economic ties with the U.S o Pluralistic society: small groups permitted to maintain own unique culture  Contains visible minorities: non Caucasian persons o British North America Act = gave power to provinces o Concentrated power in Central Canada o Ottawa’s efforts impacted by heavily populated areas – Central Canada  Corporate and political elite: Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa Canada’s geographic regions - 6 Regions: o Atlantic Canada: fisheries o Quebec: hydroelectric power o Ontario: automobile industry o Western Canada: agriculture o British Columbia: forest industry o Territorial North: megaprojects - Why these 6? o Manageable segments: easier to analyze o Identifiable physical features: balanced by geographic size, economic important and population size o Breakdown on provincial basis – statistics: instant access to data o Commonly used by media and scholars Dynamic geographic regions - 1965: autopact - Parti Quebecois - End of baby boom = reliance on immigration  multiculturalism 1970s - 1969: White Paper = equity for Aboriginal Canadians - Shift in manufacturing  value-added production: highly skilled labor - Increase energy production (Alberta)  growing demand for clean energy - Agriculture in Western Canada – growing world demand for foodstuffs - Northwest passage & St.Law passage (yearround) - Recovery of US housing = increase foresty 4 fault lines within Canada - Faultlines: cracks that divide regions and people in Canada and threaten to destabilize Canada’s integrity as a nation o Centralist/decentralist:  Canada = heterogeneous  Favors Central Canada  No political party can form a majority w/o Ontario & Quebec  Centralist: more Federal power = strong Canada  Decentralist: more Provincial power = strong Canada  B/c each province has own issues which Ottawa doesn’t understand  Western Alienation: decision to favor manufacturing at expense of energy sector (i.e carbon tax, reduce greenhouse impacts Alberta) o Old/New Canada:  Non-immigrants/Immigrants  Use to be from Europe, now from everywhere  I.e Shariah law: not allowed  Commercial famers vs independent farming (didn’t want to swear aligence) = excuse to give their land to commercial farmers o English/French:  Over language issues  Separists:Quebec separate politically but economically connected  51% against, 49% in favor of separation  No referendum again until for sure 100% result  Quiet faultline  Threatened by low birth rates, immigration also not helping  Two founding nations: Fre & Can  French dominant 1 , then battle of Abraham, then English = dominant  Fed Gov: see it English-side: each province = 1, therefore 10:1 ratio Eng/Fre o Aboriginal/Non-aboriginal:  Settlement of lands  Majority in north but many resettle to where opportunities lie  Municiple level of power, not yet provincially Power of Place - Power of place: economic power derives from a region’s resource wealth and geographic location combined with global economic trends o Resource wealth: Oil in Alberta, but oil in sand, therefore must extract sand out o Geographic location: Alberta: not great location, west = mountains, east = long distance  Vancouver = great location, Pacific Rim w/ rich hinderland o Global economic trends: global increase for oil, therefore good for Alberta  Alberta’s place in Canada is rising - Contributing to changing geographic balance of power in Canada o Shift from Central to West - Growing resource demands from developing world (China/India) will lead to higher resource prices which will lead to growing economic power for Alberta, B.C, and Sask (fossil fuel), Canada’s resource rich provinces o Super cycle theory: based on two premises:  1. Demand will tend to outshine supply and thus keep prices high  2. Global economic downturn, demand from industrializing countries will keep price decline to a minimum Sense of Place - Sense of place: intense feelings that people have for the area where they live o Social product, feelings derived from combination of experiences - Cultural: sense of identity/belonging - Can stem from the natural environment (mountains), shared common experience ( adapting to harsh
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