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Lecture 11

Geography 2010A/B Lecture 11: Geo Final Notes (Lectures 6-11)

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Western University
Geography 2010A/B
Mark Moscicki

1 Lecture 6 – Ontario: Ontario: • Ontario has the largest population of Canada’s regions. • It has always been the economic engine of the country but in 2009 it received equalization payments from the federal government for the first time ever. • Ontario is larger than most countries (over 1 million sq. km). • Only 7% of its population lives in northern Ontario. • The Niagara Escarpment contains the most variable topography in southern Ontario. • Summers in southern Ontario are hot and humid. • In winter, invasions of Arctic air masses bring cold temperatures and bitter wind chills. • Southern Ontario has over half of the highest quality agriculture land (Class 1) in Canada o Divide agriculture into classes, Class 1 can grow a wide variety of crops. o More woodlocks (tree regions) show the moister climate compared to the prairies. Historic settlement: • The French founded the first settlement in Ontario in 1749 across the river from Detroit and named it Petite Côte (this is present-day Windsor). • In the late 1700s, British Loyalists from the U.S. began settling throughout southern Ontario. o Tension between Britain and the US resulted in several battles in southern Ontario (war of 1812) ▪ Ended the influx of US settlers. • Ontario (Iroquoian word meaning “beautiful water”) was the name given to the area in 1867. o Detroit = the strait. ▪ Named things after what they saw • Petite Cote = little coast. • War of 1812: o Several battles took place between U.S. forces and British forces in Upper Canada (Ontario). o A key objective of the U.S. was to annex the region. o Indigenous people led by Chief Tecumseh joined the British to fight the US forces. ▪ Dozens were killed, including Tecumseh, at the battle of the Thames near Moraviantown. Great lakes: • All the great lakes are connected by straits. • Lake Superior is the deepest. • Combined together, the 5 Great Lakes make up the largest body of fresh water in the world. • Between each lake are connecting straits (though they are referred to as rivers). • Management and care of the lakes is shared by Canada and the US • Major ports in the great lakes system: Chicago, Toronto, Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Milwaukee, Hamilton, Toledo, Windsor, Thunder Bay • Evolution of the Great Lakes: o The Laurentide ice sheet covered most of Canada 18,000 years ago. o As ice sheet melted it altered the landscape, creating waterways and forming great lakes. • By volume, Lake Superior is the largest and Lake Erie is the smallest. • Welland Canal opened in 1830 to allow ships to bypass Niagara Falls. • The Great Lakes are important to Ontario’s economy (tourism, recreation, fishing, transportation along the St. Lawrence Seaway). • St. Lawrence Seaway connects the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. 2 Lake effect snow: • Snowbelts are found downwind of the lakes. o (In winter, the wind is often from the northwest). • Lake-effect snow is caused by cold air moving over relatively warm water. • Heavy snow falls downwind of lakes. • Southern Ontario: o London and Kitchener frequently receive lake effect snow from Lake Huron causing high annual snowfall. o Windsor occasionally receives lake effect snow from Lake Michigan. • Clouds: o All of southern Ontario frequently experiences lake effect clouds in winter. o Both lake effect clouds and lake effect snow diminish when the lakes freeze (often occurs by February) Tornadoes: • Tornadoes in Ontario can occur when a southwesterly wind brings warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. • Warm, moist air often interacts with cooler lake breezes. • Occur more often in southern Ontario. Concern with the Great Lakes: • 1. Health of the lakes o Eutrophication – addition of phosphate to the lakes. From fertilizers, chemicals that runoff from agriculture. Particularly bad in Lake Eerie. o Water pollution from urban runoff • 2. Toxic contamination o Contaminated sediment o Beach closures due to high bacteria count • 3. Exotic species (due to a lack of natural predators) o Sea lamprey, goby o Exotic animals would attach themselves to large ships and sail into new waters. Ontario Economy: • Despite recent downturns, the center of Canada’s economy remains anchored in Ontario. • Why? o Sheer size of the population o Median personal income is well above national average o Greatest cluster of cities, universities, and technological/research centers. o Central location within North America with several high traffic border crossings to the US. Regions of Ontario: • Ontario is the most diverse province in Canada both in terms of physical geography and human geography. • Each region of the province is very different and is recognized as such by the provincial government. • There are 5 regions: o Northern, Eastern, Central, Golden Horseshoe, Southwestern • 1. Northern Ontario: o Major industries: forestry, mining 3 o The population density is very low. o Largest cities: Sudbury, Thunder Bay, Sault St. Marie o Northwestern Ontario suffers a disconnection from the rest of the province o Have been several secession movements. ▪ North could never be its own province because it has such a weak economy on its own. • 2. Eastern Ontario: o The major industries are related to the federal government. o Largest cities: Ottawa, Kingston, Cornwall o Many lakes, rivers, hills, and waterfalls add to the scenery in this region. o There is a relatively high francophone population in the region due to the proximity of Quebec. • 3. Central Ontario: o The major industries are related to tourism and recreation. o Largest cities: Barrie, Peterborough, Orillia o Large portion of this region is nicknamed “cottage country” • 4. Golden Horseshoe: o Major industries: finance, insurance, health care, education o Largest CMAs: Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catherines o Highly urbanized, attracts many immigrants, and has a dense and diverse population. • 5. Southwestern Ontario: Major industries: manufacturing, agriculture o Largest CMAs: Kitchener, London, Windsor o This region has much in common with the U.S. Midwest. ▪ Several auto assembly plants and feeder factories drive the economy. ▪ Southernmost portion is culturally influenced by the close proximity of Detroit. Forestry in northern Ontario: • The demand for lumber is gradually diminishing due to technology lowering the demand for paper: o Internet is replacing newspapers and magazines o Billing, accounting, and banking transactions are all using less paper. • Softwood lumber is the main export. • The majority of land in Northern Ontario is Crown land (it is owned by the provincial government). • Scattered pulp and paper mills are located in small towns throughout the region. o If a mill closes the town has major problems. • The provincial government signs contracts with logging companies where strict regulations are in place (AAC). • A major challenge in the forest industry is to maintain a balance between cutting and the regeneration of forest. • Logging companies are responsible for replanting trees. Mining in northern Ontario: • The Canadian Shield contains gold, nickel, silver, and copper. • Metallic mineral production in Ontario leads that of all other provinces and territories. • Minerals are a non-renewable resource that deplete over time. o Thus, mining communities can have a short lifespan. 4 Human Geography of northern Ontario: • Characteristics: o An aging population o Net emigration, especially younger people o Very few immigrants o A small but increasing Indigenous population • The rocky terrain of Northern Ontario makes it difficult to traverse and discourages settlement. • The vast majority of the population is located along two corridors: • Northern branch of the Trans-Canada highway and the Canadian national railroad line. • The southern branch of the Trans-Canada highway and the Canadian pacific railroad line. Agriculture in southern Ontario: • Southern Ontario has the most suitable land for agriculture in Canada. • This is due to temperatures moderated by the Great Lakes, moderate and consistent precipitation, and fertile soil. • Cropland is dominant in southwestern Ontario whereas livestock farms are more common in eastern Ontario. o Tomatoes and grapes: Vineyards and greenhouses are common in extreme Southwestern Ontario. o Corn: most common crop, it is grown throughout southwestern Ontario. o Tobacco: it is grown on a sand plain north of Lake Erie near Tillsonburg, this area has soil that is poor for growing other crops ▪ Very sensitive growing conditions. o Fruit: peaches, cherries, and plums are grown in the Niagara area. • Niagara Fruit Belt: o This is a small area located between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie that contains a microclimate. o Advantages: ▪ 1. Lacustrine Soil ▪ 2. A moderated climate from the two nearby lakes (longer frost-free season in Fall; cooler temperatures in Spring prevent early budding). • Good that trees don’t bud too early. ▪ 3. The nearby Niagara Escarpment protects the area from harsh winds. Manufacturing in southern Ontario: • Reasons for the development of manufacturing in this region: o 1. Geographic advantage (proximity to US) o 2. Trade restriction (National Policy) o 3. Size of the domestic market (work force) • Auto industry: o The industry has been a major, well-paying employer in Southern Ontario for over 100 years. o The first plants were built in Detroit and Windsor; the auto industry then expanded throughout the lower Great Lakes area on both sides of the border. o Of all vehicles made in North America, 15% are made in Southern Ontario by 104,000 autoworkers. o Wages received by autoworkers help to drive the retail and service sectors of Ontario’s economy. o There are 5 parts to the industry: ▪ Suppliers of materials ▪ Parts production in small factories ▪ Vehicles assembly in massive plants 5 ▪ Service firms (advertisers, designers, sales) ▪ Corporate (decision makers, administration) o Just-in-time Principle – small shipment sizes so they can be sent out faster. ▪ This is used by the industry to take advantage of savings in inventories, warehousing, labor, etc. Auto Pact: • The auto pact was developed by the Canada and the U.S. in 1965 to integrate the industry. • Benefits for Canadians: o 1. It guaranteed that Canadian plants would not close. o 2. It allowed Canadian plants to specialize in certain models. o 3. Reduces the price of vehicles. • Agreement: o Both countries would eliminate the 15% tariff on automobiles and parts. o Canada was guaranteed a minimum level of automobile production. • Auto Pact was the precursor to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Auto Manufacturing: • Ontario has passed Michigan to become the biggest producer of automobiles in North America • The recession of 2008-09 resulted in a drop in production but demand for new vehicles has since increased to replace an aging fleet. • Assembly plants: o An assembly plant is where a vehicle is produced. o All assembly plants in Canada are located in southern Ontario. o Transportation links to the major markets in Canada and the US are readily available, and driving distances are short. o GM, Chrysler, Ford, Toyota, and Honda all operate assembly plants in Southern Ontario. The Big 3: • This term has historically referred to General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler. • These companies currently dominate in the sale of pick-up trucks, minivans, and SUVs. • In 1990, 90% of vehicles produced in North America were from one of the Big Three. o In 2010, this dropped to 60% of vehicles produced in North America were from one of the Big Three. • Asian presence: o Ontario has attracted plants owned by Japanese-based companies (Toyota and Honda). o Why? o -Ontario has a highly skilled automotive workforce o -publicly funded health care is available thus the auto company does not need to pay for medical insurance for their employees. • The 2008 recession: o The finances of General Motors and Chrysler collapsed during the recession; the companies were unable to pay their workers. o This was caused by the economic and mortgage crisis in the U.S. at that time which caused a sharp drop in vehicle sales. o Exports of automobiles to the US fell dramatically o This caused a ripple effect throughout the manufacturing sector and resulted in thousands of layoffs in Ontario. o Government response: ▪ The Canada, U.S., and Ontario governments kept General Motors and Chrysler afloat in 2008 and 2009 by providing billions of dollars in loans. ▪ Since 2011, both companies have seen dramatic increases in sales. 6 • Each company has repaid the government loans. ▪ The governments were credited with saving thousands of well-paying jobs in Ontario. Air pollution: • The dense population and cluster of cities in Southern Ontario and neighboring U.S. states results in air pollution being an issue. • Smog results when sunlight reacts with pollutants emitted by industry and vehicle exhaust. • It can lead to respiratory problems, especially among the elderly and the very young. o Issue with people with compromised immune systems. • Tackling air pollution: o The Ontario government recently closed all of the coal power plants in the province. o Natural gas and nuclear plants have replaced the decommissioned coal plants. o Thousands of wind turbines have been erected in Southwestern Ontario since 2000. ▪ The best locations for wind turbines are in flat landscapes that are relatively close to lake shorelines. • Wind atlas shows the concentration of good winds in Ontario. Trade with the US: • Over 80% of Ontario’s exports go to the U.S. • Production in primary sector industries in Northern Ontario (forestry, minerals) is greater than what the Canadian market can absorb therefore most is exported to the U.S. • Automobile trade accounts for 30% of all of Canada’s trade with the US. • The majority of Ontario’s exports cross over the Detroit River or the St. Clair River. High technology: • Innovative technological research is seen as the future of Ontario’s economy. • The “Technology Triangle of Canada” includes the cities of Kitchener, Waterloo, and Cambridge. • Software companies and technology manufacturers are headquartered in this region. Urbanization in Ontario: • Over 80% of Ontarians live in an urban area. • Neighboring US cities: o The two large U.S. cities that border Ontario have strong relationships with the province both economically and culturally. ▪ Detroit, MI (from Windsor), Buffalo, NY (from Fort Erie) • Impacts: o The Greater Toronto Area has rapidly urbanized over the past 50 years. o 1. Farms are subdivided into smaller units (less production) o 2. Reluctance to plant new trees. o 3. Greater demand for services (infrastructure, schools, garbage collection, health care, etc). o 4. Speculation (holding land in anticipation for future development may lead to higher land prices) o 5. Lack of confidence in farming (not considered a good long-term investment) Growth in Ontario: • The highest growth rates are found in the Golden Horseshoe region. • The areas of Ontario within 100 km of Toronto have much higher growth rates than elsewhere in Ontario. o This is partly influenced by public transit connections. Political voting patterns: 7 • Fast-growing areas tended to vote differently than slow-growing areas in the 2014 provincial election. o A noticeable urban/rural dichotomy has developed in Southern Ontario voting patterns. Golden Horseshoe: • The name derives from the horseshoe-like shape of the land around the western end of Lake Ontario. • Most densely populated area in Canada • Over 7.5mil people live in this area. • Toronto: o Toronto is the most populous city in Canada. o It is the financial capital and is home to the main offices of national banks and investment firms. o Immigration is a major driving force of its population growth ▪ Visible minorities make up 37% of the population. o It is a hub for the entertainment industry • Ottawa: o Ottawa is the second largest city in Ontario. o It is located on the Ottawa River across from Gatineau, Quebec. o Both official languages are used throughout Ottawa and there are federal government operations on both sides of the river. o Federal government is the major employer. Other large urban areas of southern Ontario: • The cities are most well-known for the following: o Hamilton: steel production, health care o Kitchener-Waterloo: technology and research (U. of Waterloo) o London: insurance, education, regional service center. ▪ Regional service center: people within an hour or so from London will come to London to shop (like the “capital” of SW Ontario) ▪ o St. Catharine’s-Niagara Falls: tourism o Windsor: manufacturing Urban areas of northern Ontario: • The cities are most well-known for the following: o Sudbury: nickel and copper mining o Thunder Bay: trans-shipment point on the great lakes ▪ Transfer from shipping to railways etc. to go out west. o Sault Ste. Marie: steel production o North Bay: regional service center o Timmins: gold mining Greater Toronto Area Greenbelt: • This is an effort by the provincial government to slow urban sprawl. • Prohibits urban development in a large designated zone surrounding the Greater Toronto Area. o Surrounded in a “green belt” Lecture 7 – Quebec: Quebec: 8 • Quebec ranks second among the six regions in terms of economic output and population. • It is the largest province in area. • The St. Lawrence River figures prominently in Quebec’s history and economy. • Quebec’s culture derives from the historical experience of Francophones living in the area for over 400 years. • 80% of residents declare French their mother tongue. These citizens have historically been known as Quebecois o Term has evolved to now include all people who reside in Quebec. • Non-Francophone residents tend to be clustered in specific parts of the province. Language laws: • These provincial laws require businesses to use French. • The laws have helped maintain French as the primary language in the region. o Most immigrants to Quebec today who speak neither French nor English choose to learn French (75%) Non-francophones in Quebec: • Anglophones o Generally concentrated in Montreal, the Eastern Townships, and the Ottawa River valley. • Allophones (non anglo, non franco) o Concentrated in Montreal • Indigenous Peoples o Inuit and Cree form the majority of the population of northern Quebec St. Lawrence River: • The river is an essential part of North America’s transportation system because it connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. • Dredging was required to prevent large freighters from running aground. o Widening and deepening the river. • Canals were constructed to allow ships to pass around rapids or waterfalls. o These became part of the St. Lawrence Seaway (opened in 1959). Population growth: • Quebec is growing at a slower rate than the rest of Canada. • Birth rate is low in all areas and the immigration rate is low in all areas except for Montreal. • In 1871, Quebec represented 32% of Canada’s population; however, it has since shrunk to 23%. • Whitest province? • Decline in Canada’s population share: o What has caused Quebec’s decline in Canada’s population share? ▪ 1. Expansion and growth of the Canadian West ▪ 2. Relocation of businesses and corporate headquarters from Quebec to Ontario. o As Quebec separatism movements gained momentum during the 1970s, Anglophone businesses and corporations left the province. ▪ They feared that an independent Quebec would lead to an unattractive business climate. Physical geography: • The Canadian Shield extends over 90% of Quebec. 9 • Best agricultural land is along the St. Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec city o Still not as good as southern Ontario land. o Quebec: primarily dairy farming. • Gaspé Peninsula is very rugged and confines settlements to its coastline. • Precipitation in the province is relatively high due to the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean. Environmental issues: • Mining wastes are evident within the Canadian Shield. • Parts of the St. Lawrence River still contain high levels of toxic chemicals, lead, and mercury from older industrial processes. • Introduction of the zebra mussel has negatively impacted aquatic ecosystem. o This is a small mollusk that was introduced to the St. Lawrence River by ships that originated in Europe. o Implications: ▪ Blocked hundreds of pipelines and water intakes. Improving the environment: • All of the energy in Quebec is generated from hydroelectric sources. • Quebec is the lowest per capita emitter of greenhouse gases of any province (along with P.E.I.). • Motorists are charged an extra 0.8 cents/litre on gas. • Revenue from this is used to fund maintenance of the hydroelectric energy system. • Greenhouse gas: allows solar radiation to pass through but absorbs infrared radiation from earth. • 2 major greenhouse gasses that lead to climate change (how do they work?): o Carbon dioxide o Methane Historical geography: • The area was originally known as New France. • 1534 – Cartier sailed into Chaleur Bay and claimed the land for France. He discovered the mouth of the St. Lawrence River the following year. • 1608 – Champlain founded a fur trading post at the current site of Quebec City. He became known as the Father of New France. • 1642–MaisonneuveestablishedVille-Marie,locatedattheconfluenceoftheOttawaandSt.Lawrence Rivers. • Ville-Marie was later renamed Montreal. • 1759 – The British defeated the French army on the Plains of Abraham. o After this defeat, British ruled Quebec for over 100 years. • 1763 – The Treaty of Paris formally awarded New France to Britain. • 1774 – Britain passed the Quebec act recognizing that citizens have special rights, use of French language, the Catholic religion, and French Civil law. • 1867 – Confederation o Benefits of Confederation for Quebec: ▪ Union with the three other colonies would strengthen the overall economy ▪ Catholicism and the French language were guaranteed protection by the federal government. ▪ Provinces were given control over education and language laws. ▪ Working with Ontario, Quebec could influence federal politics and shape the future of Canada • 1898 – The federal government extends Quebec’s northern boundary into the Canadian Shield. 10 • 1912 – Quebec nearly doubled in size when the boundary was expanded to include the Inuit lands of Nunavik. • 1927 –Acourtdeclaredtheboundary between QuebecandLabrador should followthe drainage basin divide. Quebec does not agree with this decision to this day. Quebec economy: • The geographic aspects of the economy are similar to those in Ontario since the province can be divided into two economic areas: o An industrial and agricultural core (south) o A resource-based periphery (north) • Differences compared to Ontario: o Growing season in Quebec is relatively short o Quebec has much better natural conditions for hydroelectricity development. • Manufacturing in Quebec has declined during the past 10 years but remains a viable industry. • • There are currently 20 firms in the Montreal area that produce automobile parts. • The parts are then shipped to assembly plants in Ontario and the US. • Research and technology industries have fared well with the support of Montreal’s Universities. o Moving to quaternary sector (knowledge based). Hydro-Quebec: • Hydro-Quebec is a sense of pride among Quebec residents and has become a symbol of its economic prominence. • Created in 1944 but was a minor force until Premier Jean Lesage came to power in 1960. o At that time, Quebec announced it would purchase all private electrical utilities in the province. o This created a monopoly to generate and distribute electricity both within the province and for export. • Objectives: o Stimulate economic growth through government intervention o Undertake construction of massive hydroelectric projects in the Canadian Shield o Build high voltage transmission lines to transport electricity. o Sell power to the northeastern states of the US. o These strategies have been highly successful. • Possible expansions: o Taking over the electrical utilities in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia is a long-term goal. o Strategy: ▪ Gain control of the power grid in these provinces to achieve complete dominance of the area as well as a share of the market in New York state and the 6 New England states. • Hydroelectricity: o Hydroelectric developments depend on three factors: ▪ Lots of precipitation, variable topography, access to markets. • Precipitation is abundant in Quebec. • Variable topography with entrenched river valleys ensure a steady flow for the power plants. o High-voltage transmission lines connect the plants in the north to the populated markets in the south. • Advantages of hydroelectric developments: 11 o Renewable energy o Long life of the facilities. o Relatively low operating costs ▪ Has big cost to actually making the plant in the first place. o Job creation during construction o No greenhouse gas emissions • Attracting large-scale industry: o Hydro-Quebec has indirectly improved Quebec’s economy by attracting large-scale industrial development. o Hydro-Quebec is able to offer power to these industrial firms at a low cost. o Transmission lines go straight downward toward where the general population is. • Energy prices for industry: o How is Hydro-Quebec able to offer low energy prices to industrial firms? ▪ 1. Northern Quebec can produce vast amounts of power (much more than the province needs). ▪ 2. Hydro-Quebec has a long-term contract to buy power from Churchill Falls in Labrador at 1969 prices. ▪ 3. As a monopoly, Hydro-Quebec is free to control its own price structure. James Bay project: • It involves the production of hydroelectricity from all 20 rivers that flow into James Bay from Quebec. • The first phase (La Grande) began in 1972 and was completed 10 years later at a cost of $15 billion. • Construction required a new highway to northern Quebec and the creation of a new community (Radisson). • Controversy: o The project was one of the few hydroelectric developments that created controversy. o Indigenous peoples and environmental organizations were the most outspoken against the project. • Problems: o Flooding caused by dams o Loss of habitat o Loss of timber o ChemicalsinthereservoirsaffectedfishthatwereeatenbyIndigenouspeople(CreeandInuit) o Impact on indigenous hunting grounds. • Responses to controversy: o Opposition from the Cree and Sierra Club influenced public opinion in the U.S. o A settlement was reached between the Indigenous people and Hydro-Quebec. ▪ This was referred to as the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. Geography of North Quebec: • This part of the province occupies the Canadian Shield and the Hudson Bay Lowlands. • The economy is based on mining and forestry. • There are few roads and the area is too remote to attract tourists. • Political opportunities are currently growing for the northern Quebec region of Nunavik. Demographics of north Quebec: • Characteristics: • Aging population • Net emigration, especially of younger people • Few immigrants 12 • Growing Inuit and Cree population • Similar to north Ontario demographics. Nunavik: • Over 90% of the population in this area is Inuit. • Almost all residents live in one of the 15 settlements along the coast. • Negotiations are ongoing to establish a regional government. • Regional government: o This would be an elected parliamentary-style cabinet and council. o A public service would be responsible for delivering health care and education. o The government center would be in Kuujuaq. o Quebec would maintain jurisdiction over the area and provide funding. Forestry: • Quebec is canada’s leading producer of paper and newsprint. Much of it is exported to the US. • Demand for Quebec’s softwood lumber has been consistently higher than U.S. softwood lumber. o Why? ▪ Quebec’s cold climate results in slower tree growth which increases the strength of the wood. Mining: • Mining is a key component of the economy in northern Quebec. • The annual value of mineral production in northern Quebec is over $4 billon. • Iron ore is the most common type of mine followed by copper, and gold. Tourism: • Quebec attracts tourists for its natural beauty, historic past, and francophone culture. o It is within a day’s drive of tens of millions of people. • Threats to tourism: o Canadian dollar fluctuation o Global economic uncertainty o Thickening of the US border Urbanization: • Over 80% of Quebec’s population lives in an urban area. • Over 70% of the population live in one of 6 cities: o Montreal, Quebec City, Gatineau, Sherbrooke, Saguenay, and Trois-Rivieres. ▪ Saguenay is the name of two cities that merged together in 2002 (Chicoutimi and Jonquiere). • Montreal: o Montreal is the commercial, cultural, and industrial center of Quebec. Its name is French for Royal Mountain (a large hill in the center of the city). o The city is located on an island. o Serves asa major portand trans-shipmentpointbetweenthe GreatLakes and AtlanticOcean. • Quebec City: o Quebec City is the provincial capital and is the oldest city in Canada. ▪ It is the only walled city in North America and features buildings over 300 years old. o The economy is dependent on provincial government jobs and tourism. • Eastern Townships (Estrie) o This is a scenic area east of Montreal abutting the Appalachian Mountains. o Sherbrooke is the largest city in this area. 13 Lecture 8 – British Columbia BC: • British Columbia is mainly located in the Cordillera physiographic region. • The northeastern part of the province is located in the Interior Plains physiographic region. • The mountain ranges in BC are aligned on a northwest to southeast axis. • Central plateau lands are found between mountain ranges. • The Insular Mountains are located just off the coast of B.C. and form the backbone of Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island. • Temperate rainforests are found along the coast, semi-arid conditions in parts of the interior, and tundra at high elevations. • BC is divided into 7 regions. Regions of BC: • 1. Vancouver Island – Coast: o The Coast mountain range is the most prominent physical feature. o Fjords are commonly found ▪ Canyon filled with water. o along the coast. o The area has the mildest winters in Canada due to the moderation caused by the Pacific Ocean. o Major industries include forestry, fishing, and government services (in Victoria) • 2. Lower Mainland – Southwest: o This area contains alluvial soil with a high nutrient content. o It is the major agricultrual area of the province. o The majority of the population in BC live in this region as it is o Home to the Vancouver CMA. • 3. Thompson – Okanagan: o Kamloops and Kelowna are located in this region in the B.C. interior. o It is a relatively dry area with sunny, warm summers. o The land is a mix of open range, cattle grazing, forest land o Tourism is an important industry in the area around Lake Okanagan. o Transportation corridors pass through this region (roads and rails follow along the Thompson River) • 4. Kootenay: o The Rocky Mountains are found in this region as well as the communities of Nelson, Cranbrook, and Fernie. o The continental divide forms the border between this region and Alberta. o Economy is driven by tourism, mining, and hydroelectric power • 5. Cariboo – Prince George: o Prince George is a regional service centre for the surrounding area. o Forestry, mining, ranching, pulp and paper mills are important industries in this region. o University of Northern British Columbia was established in Prince George in 1990 ▪ Establishing universities stabilizes economy of the area. 14 • 6. Skeena – North Coast: o This is an isolated area bordering Alaska. o Economy is driven by fishing, mining, aluminum smelters, and hydroelectric power. o Prince Rupert is the second busiest port in B.C. • 7. Northeast: o The only highway connecting Yukon and Alaska to southern Canada passes through this region. o Small towns service traffic and truck transport along this corridor. Economy: • The population in B.C. is relatively fast growing; many immigrants arrive to the Vancouver CMA from Asia. • The province has four main exports: o Lumber, pulp, natural gas, coal ▪ Coal economy is shrinking • Vancouver has become a popular location for filming Hollywood movies. • Imports from China, Japan, and South Korea flow through Vancouver to markets across Canada. Western alienation: • The Rocky Mountains can act as more than just a physical divide. o Psychological divide as well. • Only 4 highways that connect BC with the rest of Canada. • Throughout its history, many residents of B.C. have felt a disconnection from the rest of Canada. • One expression of this is the concept of Cascadia: o This is the name proposed for an independent country uniting BC and the states of Washington and Oregon. Physical Geography: • Climate zones: o Varied topography creates many microclimates. o Because Victoria is in the rain-shadow of the Insular Mountains, it receives 40% less precipitation than Vancouver. ▪ Insular mountains are on the islands. o The Pineapple Express is a flow of warm air in winter originating in Hawaii that keeps B.C. mild but also very wet. o Summer in Vancouver and Victoria are mild and relatively dry Environmental issues: • The B.C. forest industry has been negatively impacted by large forest fires and the mountain pine beetle. • The Okanagan Valley is prone to dry summers, high winds, and occasional lightning. o These are all ingredients for forest fires. • Mountain pine beetle: o The beetle has destroyed vast areas of forest in the B.C. interior. o Warmer winters due to climate change are allowing the beetle to spread at a rapid rate. o Pine beetle is the size of a grain of rice. o Not an exotic species, they are native to the area. ▪ Now warm winters make it so that they are not killed off in the winter, issue caused by climate change. 15 Historical geography: • Early exploration of the land was by Spanish, Russians, and British explorers. Spain surrendered its claim to the Pacific coast north of 42°N. • Britain was concerned about many Americans arriving on the coast along the Oregon Trail. • US/Britain boundary was drawn at 49°N. • This line of latitude then became the US/Canada border from Manitoba to the BC coast. o Point Roberts, US is trapped in BC. ▪ Cut off from US. • In the mid-1800s there was an influx of Americans during gold rushes. o Britain established the colony of BC in 1858 to ensure British rule over the land. • After Confederation, Ottawa aimed to lure B.C. into Canada by promising to build a railroad to the Pacific Ocean within 10 thars of B.C. joining. o BC became the 6 Canadian province in 1871. • After completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway, towns and cities developed along the corridor. o Vancouver quickly grew as a trans-shipment point for lumber and coal produced in B.C. and also for grain produced in the Prairies. • Immigration increased especially after the mid-1900s • The 2010 Winter Olympics put BC on the world stage and are a high point in its history. Core or Periphery? • B.C. no longer has a resource-based economy. • While the economy is growing and diversifying, it has a very small manufacturing base. o In this sense, it is not considered a core region. ▪ However, economic advancement in the knowledge-based economy has resulted in B.C. becoming an upward transitional region. • Growing quickly as an economy (upward transitional region). Pacific Rim trade: • Exports to China, Japan, and South Korea make up 25% of the products passing through B.C. ports. • Trade is rapidly accelerating with China as their economy continues to develop. • The federal government has invested in the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor (a program that improves infrastructure leading to B.C. ports). Fishing: • Over 80 species of fish and marine animals are harvested from the Pacific Ocean. o The most valuable species are salmon, herring, and shellfish. • Overexploitation of the salmon stock has plagued the BC fishing industry. • Salmon industry: o Regulating salmon fishing is challenging because they are a migratory fish. o Salmon may spawn in Canadian waters but then migrate to American waters. o This problem is an example of the “tragedy of the commons” ▪ A common need of use for many people. ▪ Destruction of renewable resources that are not privately owned. (can’t privately own the ocean) o The main BC salmon spawning rivers are the Fraser and the Skeena. o The federal government is responsible for managing salmon stock and faces four issues: ▪ 1. Salmon spawn in rivers but migrate to oceans then return to rivers to spawn (5- year cycle). ▪ 2. Forestry and hydroelectric industries have negatively impacted salmon spawning grounds. (water pollution). 16 ▪ 3. Indigenous people are permitted to catch salmon for subsistence. (living off of the land). ▪ 4. The harvesting of ‘Canadian’ salmon by Americans in international waters. o The size of catch is highly variable from year to year but the overall trend has been downward. o Factors accounting for this: ▪ Pollution of fish habitat ▪ Warming ocean temperatures ▪ Overfishing • Because the previous year was subpar, etc. ▪ High fish quotas ▪ Indigenous fishery Mining: • Exporting mineral deposits from B.C. is a challenge because most mines are located far from the ocean ports. • A shale deposit in northeastern B.C. contains a vast quantity of natural gas. • Infrastructure improvements and pipelines are needed to export it more efficiently to growing Asian markets. Hydroelectric power: • B.C. has a variety of energy sources including hydroelectric plants. • There are ideal conditions for hydroelectric dams in the Cordillera: o High elevation, steep-sided valleys, and large fast flowing rivers • Large aluminum production plants have located in BC as a result of the low cost for electrical power. Tourism: • Tourists are attracted to both the natural beauty and wilderness of B.C. and the cosmopolitan urban centers. • The Whistler ski resort benefited from hosting events of the 2010 Winter Olympics. • Cruise ships bound for Alaska often stop along the BC coast. • Expanding the Sea-to-Sky Highway to meet tourism needs was a controversial issue. Forestry: • B.C. contains half of Canada’s softwood lumber and leads the nation in the export of forest products. • In 1960, forestry accounted for 50% of employment in BC. It now accounts for 12%. • A major factor for the decline is the reduction of softwood lumber exports to the U.S. • B.C. forests are divided into two major regions: o The coast forest and the interior boreal forest • B.C. Coast forest: o Characteristics: ▪ Mild temperatures and abundant rainfall ▪ Low risk of forest fires results in massive trees over 200 years old. (not getting burned down and having to be re-planted). ▪ Common species are fir, cedar, and hemlock • B.C. Interior forest: o Characteristics: ▪ Precipitation is less abundant ▪ Prone to drought and forest fires in late summer ▪ Trees are smaller and have a shorter lifespan ▪ Common species are Lodgepole pine and Ponderosa pine. 17 Softwood lumber dispute with the US: • U.S. lumber producers complained to the U.S. government about losing market share to Canadian producers who were selling lumber at lower prices. • Lobbyists encouraged the US government to impose duties on Canadian lumber. • Despite the existence of NAFTA, this was still allowable. Why? o Because the US companies can claim the power prices are a form of unfair trade. • Softwood lumber trade agreement (2006): o The agreement between the U.S. and Canada was signed in 2006. o Highlights: ▪ US had to return $4 billion of duty it charged on Canadian lumber companies since 2002 ▪ US could not launch trade actions against Canadian lumber producers ▪ If lumber prices fell below a certain value, Canada had to impose a tax on its lumber exports. (This protects US lumber companies). Urbanization: • Over 60% of B.C. residents live in the Lower Mainland-Southwest region. o Urban centres: Vancouver, Abbotsford • The second most populated area is found on southeastern Vancouver Island. o Urban centres: Victoria, Nanaimo • Third population cluster is located in the interior. o Urban centres: Kelowna, Kamloops, Penticton. Vancouver: • Vancouver is the largest port in Canada and the 3 largest CMA. • Nearly 20% of the CMA is of Chinese ethnic origin. o Highest percentage in Canada. • Approximately one-third of people do not identify with any religion. o Highest amount in Canada. Lecture 9 – Prairie Provinces Prairies • This region is home to the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. • It is commonly referred to as the Prairies however the northern portions of each province have a landscape dominated by boreal forest. • Southern half is heavily agricultural. • Topography is flat. Climate is dry. Extreme temp differences between summer and winter • Oil is an important natural resource. • Tourism is highest in the Rocky mountain foothills (ex: Banff and Jasper) • There is a high indigenous population and relatively high Eastern European population. Name origins • Alberta o Prince Louise Caroline Alberta was the 4 daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. • Saskatchewan o Derived from a Cree word meaning “swift flowing water” • Manitoba o Derived from a Cree word meaning “lake of the prairies” 18 Land settlement: • Before 1869: o Land division was based on Métis settlement patterns. Lots were narrow and provided frontage along rivers. • From 1869 onward: o It was based on grids and square lots ¼ of a square mile in size. o The square pattern preceded European settlement and was superimposed over physical obstacles and the preceding Métis settlement pattern. Early settlement patterns: • Initially, villages and towns were arranged in a linear pattern linked to railways. • These settlements provided basic services for nearby farmers. • Larger towns developed around grain elevators; roughly every third settlement along a railway was larger and provided more diverse services than villages (e.g. a school or a medical clinic). • Each village was home to frequently used services (e.g. general stores). Rural population decline: • Since 1940, the rural population in the Prairies has steadily declined. • Why? o 1. Farms became larger and more mechanized leading to a lower population density. o 2. Grain farms became more common (after WW2). ▪ There is no livestock on these types of farms thus minimal staffing is necessary. • Declining villages: o Since 1940, the population of many villages has declined while larger towns and cities have grown. o Why? ▪ 1. Lower rural population density of rural areas leads to less business for villages. ▪ 2. An increased use of trucks and cars as oppose
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