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Lecture 7

Geography 2010A/B Lecture 7: Quebec - Geo 2010

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Geography 2010A/B
Mark Moscicki

Geo 2010 (Quebec) – Week 7 Summary Quebec • Second among six regions in terms of economic output and population • Largest province in area – St Lawrence River figures prominently in their history and economy • Culture derives from historical experience of Francophones living in this area for over 400 yrs • 80% of residents declare French their mother tongue – Quebecois • Term evolved is to now include all residents • Non-francophone residents tend to be clustered in specific parts of the province Language Laws in Quebec • Provincial laws require businesses to use French – laws have helped to maintain French as the primary language in this region (immigrants who speak neither, choose French -75%) Non-Francophones in Quebec • Anglophones (English speaking) o Generally concentrated in Montreal, Eastern Townships and Ottawa River valley • Allophones o Concentrated in Montreal • Indigenous Peoples o Inuit and Cree form the majority of the population of northern Quebec St Lawrence River • An essential part of NA’s transportation system because it connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean – dredging required to prevent large freighters from running aground • Canals were constructed to allow ships to pass around rapids/waterfalls – became part of the St Lawrence Seaway (opened in 1959) Decline in Canada’s Population Share • What has caused Quebec’s decline in Canada’s population share? o Expansion and growth of Canadian west o Relocation of businesses and corporate headquarters from Quebec to Ontario • Quebec separatism movements gained momentum in 1970s – Anglophone businesses and corporations left the province – feared independent Quebec would lead to bad business Physical Geography of Canada • Canadian shield extends over 90% of Quebec – best agricultural along St Lawrence (between Montreal/Quebec City) • Gaspe Peninsula is rugged and confines settlements to its coastline – precipitation in the province is relatively high due to proximity of the Atlantic Ocean Environmental Issues • Mining wastes are evident within the Canadian Shield • Parts of St Lawrence River still contain high levels of toxic chemicals (Pb, Hg) from old industrial processes – introduction to zebra muscle has also negatively impacted aquatics o Small mollusk that was introduced by ships from Europe – blocks pipelines • Improving the environment -- all energy in Quebec = hydroelectric sources o Quebec is the lowest per capita emitter of GH gases along with PEI Greenhouse: gas that allows solar radiation to pass through but absorbs infrared radiation (radiation coming from the earth) – these are major contributors to climate change o Motorists are charged 0.8 cents/liter on gas o Revenue from this is used to fund maintenance of hydroelectric energy system Historic Geography of Quebec: Timeline (area was originally known as New France) • 1534: Cartier sailed into Chaleur Bay – claimed land for France – discovered St Law River • 1608: Champlain founded a fur trading post in Quebec City – Father of New France • 1642: Maisonneuve established Ville-Marie (at confluence of the Ottawa and St Lawrence Rivers) – this was later named Montreal • 1759: British defeated the French on the Plains of Abraham (British ruled Quebec for 100 yrs) • 1763: Treaty of Paris formally awarded New France to Britain • 1774: Britain passed Quebec Act – have rights: use of French, catholic, French civil law • 1867:Confederation (benefits) o Union with three other colonies would strengthen overall economy o Catholicism and the French language were guaranteed protection by the federal government – provinces were given control over education and language laws o Working with Ontario, Quebec could influence federal politics and Canada’s future • 1898: federal government extends Quebec’s northern boundary into Canadian Shield • 1912: Quebec doubles in size when boundary was expanded to include Inuit land of Nunavik • 1927: court declared boundary between Quebec and Labrador should follow drainage basin Quebec Economy • Geographic aspects are similar to Ontario and can be divided into two economic areas o Industrial and Agricultural core (South) o Resource-based Periphery (North) • Differences compared to Ontario: o Growing season in Quebec is relatively short o Quebec has much better natural conditions for hydroelectricity development • 20 firms in Montreal area that produce automobile parts – parts are then shipped to assembly plants in Ontario and the US (Research and technology industries have fared well with the support of Montreal’s universities) Hydro-Quebec • Is a sense of pride among Quebec residents – is a symbol of its economic prominence • Created in 1944 but was a minor force until Premier Jean Lesage came to power in 1960 o Quebec announced it would purchased all private electrical utilities in the province • Created a monopoly to generate and distribute electricity both within the province + export • Objectives: o Stimulate economic growth throu
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