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Geograpgy of Canada Lecture 1.doc

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Western University
Geography 2010A/B
Suzanne Greaves

Regions of Canada Region: “an area of the earth’s surface defined by its distinctive human and/or natural characteristics” (Bone). Can be one of those or a combination. Usually use 1 characteristic - physical or cultural i.e. grasslands or French speaking regions - Formal or functional Formal based on uniformity, presence or absence of one or more characteristics of what IS there. Grassland would be know for abundance of grasslands. Functional- based on interacting, all parts of the region interacting with each other. i.e. regional airline. Outlying points share something with the center, like London free press, which gets distributed around the center city. - Boundaries – transition zones - Borders of regions are transition zones and not dark lines. On maps we draw a single line but that is not what it looks like on the ground - Hierarchy Regions can be listed by size or other factors like where it is contained. Saying southwestern Ontario can be based on the fact that it is sedimentary bedrock - Human constructs – infinite number - Regions are human constructs. They are artificial to serve a purpose to humans. All regions have 5 characteristics that can be common between regions: special extent, location, formal or functional, hierarchy and boundaries. Regions of Canada: 1. Ontario 2. Quebec 3. British Columbia – also known as western mountains 4. Western Canada – Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, also prairie provinces. 5. Atlantic Canada – In the east, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and PEI, Newfoundland and Labrador (Newfoundland) 6. Territorial North- Yukon, Northwest territories, Nunavut Ontario and Quebec are defined as central Canada. Why regionalize and why these regions? 1. Manageable sections 2. Identifiable physical features- balanced by geographic size i.e. prairies are identifiable by the plain in their south, northern part we called Canadian Shield. Atlantic Canada, older mountains than west coast and it is an upland area and that is the commonality between them. 3. Breakdown is on a provincial basis – statistics Federal and provincial government can easily provide information on specific areas. 4. Commonly used by media and scholars—an established scheme which includes manageable sections that have identifiable physical features and is easy for statistics. Functional Regional Framework - Core/periphery, heartland/hinterland model - Suggests how the core and periphery interacts with each other - Exists at different scales o e.g. global core(central Europe) and periphery (everything else), regional Canada (southern Ontario and quebec) and periphery is everything else, local – London is core and hinterland is the farm land surrounding it. Where in Canada? - Traditionally, Southern Ontario and Southern Quebec- drive of the economy is there - 300 mile wide band between Windsor and Quebec City – i.e. “Main Street “ Canada**QUIZ 1 based on book that talks about that stretch – aka Windsor – Quebec city Axis, a wide band that goes from one to the other. Canada is changing, while core hasn’t changed but there are two challengers (economically) a) Vancouver and surrounding area, because of its location b) combination of Calgary and Edmonton that have intertwined industries around oil. There might be multiple cores in the future but not as of now. Definition of Core/Periphery or Heartland/Hinterland Core Periphery - Manufacturing /industry - primary sector of economy: fishing, hunting trapping. - Geographically, relatively small - geog., relatively large - relatively urban CMA over 100 000 - relatively rural residents, over 30 CMA’sin Canada - diverse economy: most sectors are represented - resource based used to be called recession proof - receives raw materials from periphery: - purchases finished goods not a closed loop anymore from core - decision-making/corp. headquarters - receives decisions - factors of production - receives factors of production - densely populated - sparsely populated - Traditionally, away from core: - Regional disparity increases - Average income decreases - Unemployment increases - Since 1980s, these “regularities” have started to change - Friedmans’s model -3 categories: upward transitional, downward transitional and resource frontier (raw material). They are not core but they are growing More than one core/heartland in Canada? - yes and no - Vancouver ? - Edmonton/Calgary ? - Regional heartlands ? They are strong regional cores but not on Canadian scales. How did Canada’s heartland get to be the heartland? - Staples Thesis – Harold Innis – one possible approach - Early settlement from first inhabitants in Canada - Created by Harold innis Staples Thesis -how did Canada’s core become the core? **Need to be able to explain it well** - staple product – a natural resource that can be exploited relatively quickly and cheaply for profit - 1800s making money was by selling fish to neighbors - east to west progression as Canada’s staple products changed over time 1. fish (East) first stapled product-wet and dry fishery (shipped back to Europe) wet fishery used salt to keep it fresh 2. furs (East slowly moving west as resources exploited) trappers lived a solitary lives, kept moving to more populated areas of animals. 3. timber (East slowly moving west as resources exploited) - ship building in Canada and in Britain - Far
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