Class Notes (839,330)
Canada (511,272)
Geography (1,356)

GEO2010 Chapter 11 Notes.docx

4 Pages

Course Code
Geography 2010A/B
Suzanne Greaves

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Chapter 11: Canada: A Country Of Regions Regional Character  Canada’s strength is its regional diversity and ensuing political struggle to balance regional interests with national ones  Canada evolved from a small country consisting of 4 former British colonies to the second-largest country in the world with a strong possibility of further territorial gains in the unclaimed Arctic Ocean  Ontario has the most favourable natural conditions and location for agriculture, economic growth, and industrialization in Canada o Complementing these natural advantages were some federal policies designed to encourage a manufacturing base o Ontario’s automobile manufacturing industry has witnessed a substantial contraction o Its long-term future is problematic because of threat of low-cost imports and longer-term threat of oil supplies diminishing and prices rising  Quebec remains Canada’s second region, St. Lawrence river has provided a transportation link to the Great Lakes and rest of the world o Extensive hydroelectric resources obtained by land acquisitions from federal government o Its culture shaped by historical relations with France and by its French-speaking inhabitants is a cultural anomaly in North America o Remains recipient of largest equalization payments suggests economically all is not well  Ecotopia: narrow band along Pacific coast from northern California to Alaska defined as a vernacular region with distinctive economic and culture features, focuses on a green world with an emphasis on quality of life and a sustainable economy  British Columbia has a distinctly Pacific coast frame of mind o With trade future linked to Pacific Rim, BC continues to expand its population and economy o Principal industry (forestry) remains stalled because its major market is the depressed US housing market  Western Canada with its fertile soil and vast underground resources also benefits from greater trade with Pacific Rim countries o Must factor into its finances the long transportation routes to its market o Craves respect within Confederation, ignored by Ottawa and exploited by Quebec-Ontario heartland  Atlantic Canada’s relation to the sea continues to play a large role in its regional character o Advantageous proximity to New England o Recently more attention to its petroleum resources than to its fishery  Territorial North has 3 feature: largest region, cold environment, Aboriginal population o Decision at United Nations may greatly increase its geographic size and offshore energy reserves  Regional character changes with time  Populations have developed attachments to their regions and strong sense of place now exists and continues to adapt to new circumstances  Economic performance of Canada’s six regions varies  Ottawa’s intervention through equalization payments has played a critical role in reducing economic gaps between regions  “Have-not” regions use these payments to ensure a degree of parity in terms of education and social services  For many years, Ontario led Canada’s regions in economic growth o However, if Ontario’s recent economic decline is temporary, then the well-being of the federal equalization program may be in jeopardy o Ottawa has depended heavily on tax revenue from Ontario and its citizens to fund the equalization program Canada’s Spatial Structure  Spatial framework consists of: core regions (Ontario and Quebec), three types of hinterlands – upward transitional regions (British Columbia and Western Canada), downward transitional (Atlantic Canada), and resource frontier (Territorial North)  In the last decade, Canada’s manufacturing base in Central Canada lost its momentum  Automobile industry fell into bankruptcy with General Motors and Chrysler requiring huge public investments to stay alive  Commodity prices reached new levels in response to strong demand from Asian countries causing boom-l
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