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Geography 2010A/B
Mark Moscicki

Geography-Lecture 6 February 26, 2014 Ontario • Ontario has the largest population of Canada’s regions. • It has always been the economic engine of the country but in 2009 it received equalization payments from the federal government for the first time ever. • Manufacturing collapsed in 09 because US demand fell. This is the main reason that Ontario is now considered a have not province. • Ontario is larger than most countries (over 1 million sq. km). • Only 7% of its population lives in northern Ontario. • The Niagara Escarpment provides the most variable topography in Southern Ontario. • Summers in southern Ontario are hot and humid. • In winter, invasions of Arctic air bring cold temperatures and bitter wind chills. • Southern Ontario has over half of the highest quality agricultural land (Class 1) in Canada. Historic Settlement in Ontario • The French developed the first settlement in 1749 across the river from Detroit and named it Petite Côte (present-day Windsor). • In the late 1700s, British loyalists began settling throughout southern Ontario. • Tension between Britain and the US resulted in several battles (War of 1812) • This ended the influx of American Settlers. • Ontario (an iroquoian word meaning “beautiful water”) was the name given to the area in 1867. The Great Lakes • Combined together, the 5 Great Lakes make up the largest body of fresh water in the world. • Between each lake are connecting straits (often referred to as rivers). • Management and care of the lakes is shared by Canada and the US. • Major ports in the Great Lakes system: Chicago, Toronto, Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Milwaukee, Toledo, Windsor, Thunder Bay (in order of population) • By volume, Lake Superior is the largest and Lake Erie is the smallest. • The Welland Canal allows ships to bypass Niagara Falls. • The Great Lakes are important to Ontario’s economy (fishing, tourism, recreation, transportation along the St. Lawrence Seaway). • St. Lawrence Seaway: Connects the Great Lakes System with the Atlantic Ocean. Lake Effect Snow • Snowbelts are found downwind of the lakes. (In winter, the wind is often from the northwest). • Lake-effect snow is caused by cold air moving over relatively warm water. • Heavy snow falls downwind of lakes. • London and Kitchener frequently receive lake effect snow from Lake Huron causing high annual snowfall. • Windsor occasionally receives lake effect snow from Lake Michigan. Lake Effect Clouds • All of southern Ontario frequently experiences lake effect clouds in winter. • Both lake effect clouds and lake effect snow diminish when the lakes freeze (this often occurs by February) Canada's Tornado Alley • Tornadoes in Ontario occur when a southwesterly wind brings warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. • The warm, moist air often interacts with cooler lake breezes. Concerns Within the Great Lakes 1. Health of the lakes  eutrophication  water pollution from urban runoff 2. Toxic contamination  contaminated sediment  beach closures due to high bacteria counts 3. Exotic species (no natural predators)  sea lamprey, goby Regions of Ontario • Ontario is the most diverse province in Canada both in terms of physical geography and human geography. • Each region of the province is different and is treated as such by the Provincial government. • There are 4 regions: Northern, Eastern, Central (GTA), SouthWestern Region: Northern Ontario • Major industries: forestry, mining • Population density is very low. • Largest cities: Sudbury, Thunder Bay, Sault Ste. Marie (in order of population) • Northern Ontario suffers from a disconnection from the rest of the province. • There have been several succession movements. Region: Eastern Ontario • Major industries are related to • government. • Largest cities: Ottawa, Kingston, Cornwall (more industrial/along St. Lawrence) • Many lakes, rivers, hills, and waterfalls provide ample opportunities for recreation. • There is a relatively high francophone population in the area given the proximity to Quebec. Region: Central Ontario • Major industries: finance, • insurance, health care, education • Largest CMAs: Toronto, Hamilton, Oshawa • This region is home to the Golden Horseshoe. • It is highly urbanized, attracts many immigrants, and has a dense and diverse population. Region: Southwestern Ontario • Major industries: manufacturing, • agriculture • Largest CMAs: Kitchener, London, • Windsor • This region has much in common with the U.S. Midwest (in terms of geography and culture). • Several auto assembly plants and feeder factories drive the economy. • Extreme Southwestern Ontario is somewhat Americanized due to its proximity to Detroit. Ontario Economy • Despite recent downturns, the centre of Canada’s economy remains anchored in Ontario. Why?  sheer size of the population.  median personal income is well above the national average.  greatest cluster of cities, universities, and technological/research centres.  central location within N.A Economy of Northern Ontario • The housing crisis in the US reduced the demand for northern Ontario lumber. • Demand for paper is diminishing:  internet is replacing newspapers  billing, accounting, and banking transactions are all using less paper Forestry • A main challenge in the forest industry is to maintain a balance between logging and the regeneration of forest. • Because 90% of forest lands in Ontario are owned by the Provincial government, private forestry companies must obtain leases. • Logging companies are responsible for restoring trees. Forestry in Northern Ontario • Softwood is the main export (pine/spruce) • The majority of land is Crown land (owned by the government) • Scattered pulp and paper mills are located throughout the area • Single resource towns are common • Evergreen forestry agreements are in place (AAC-annual allowable cut) Mining in Northern Ontario • The Canadian Shield contains gold, nickel, silver, and copper. • Metallic mineral production in Ontario leads that of all other provinces and territories. • Minerals are non renewable. They deplete over time. Thus, mining communities can have a short lifespan (average 30 years) Human Geography of Northern Ontario • Characteristics:  An aging population  Net out-migration, especially of younger people  Very few immigrants  Small but increasing Aboriginal population • The rocky terrain of northern Ontario makes it difficult to traverse and discourages settlement. • The vast majority of the population is located along two corridors: • The Northern branch of the Trans Canada Highway and the Canadian National railroad line. • The Southern branch of the Trans Canada Highway and the Canadian National railroad line. Agriculture in Ontario • Southern Ontario has the most suitable land for agriculture in Canada. • This is due to temperatures moderated by the Great Lakes, ample precipitation, and fertile soil. • Cropland is dominant in southwestern Ontario whereas livestock farms are more common in central and eastern Ontario. • Grapes/Tomatoes: Vineyards and greenhouses are common in extreme Southwestern Ontario. • Corn: Most common crop, grown throughout Southwestern Ontario. • Tobacco: Located on a sand plain north of Lake Erie, this area has soil that is
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