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Lecture 3

Geography 2011A/B Lecture 3: Economic Geography

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Geography 2011A/B
Wendy Dickinson

Week 3 – Economic Geography Levels of Economic Activity - Primary: extraction of raw materials o Canada built on primary resources, extracting resources, that’s why immigrants came here - Secondary: conversion into product o Make more money o Basic as processing, refining, or milling o Advanced manufacturing like building a car or TV o Transforming primary resources to products - Tertiary: provision of services o Providing services o Health care, teaching, care taking, restaurants - Quaternary: collection, processing, and distribution of information o Information, communication - Vast majority now is tertiary and quaternary - History of Canada is primary and secondary Agriculture Historical Development: - Immigrants o Coming from Europe for fetile land and start farming o Great lakes lowlands were gone by 1850 o If wanted agricultural land had to look further west because lots of people were consumed by land - Canals for export for better shipping in 1800s - Grist mills along rivers - Local consumption increased as population grew Current Ontario - Southern Ontario o Great lakes and St. Lawrence lowlands is the best part because of quality of soil - Ontario leads Canada in total $ value of farm produce - 1/4 of Canada’s 229,373 farms in 2006 - First in the total number of farms in Canada. - 9.0 million acres of cropland in Ontario in 2006 - Risk of economic disaster - Subsidies and tariffs o Federal government giving money to farmers to produce things to help them out o Taxes - Environmental Change - Over 200 commodities - More diverse than most parts of the world o Very diverse ON agriculture use o More diverse = more resilient o Trying to get rid of tobacco Changes in landscape/environment - Rapid and large-scale clearing of land - Loss of soil o Nothing to hold soil in palce o Rains and soil moves into rivers, lakes, and streams by water - Altered the flow of rivers - Fish habitats destroyed - Flood plains - Pollution Commercial Fisheries - Began about 1820 - Expanded 20% per year - Largest harvests in 1889 and 1899 - Golden days over by late 1950s - Province sets annual quotas and issues licenses - Approximately 80 per cent of the value resides with the Lake Erie fishery (yellow perch and walleye) - > 500 active commercial fishing licences in Ontario o Commercial about economic activity o Sport fishery about tourism - In 2011, those licence holders: - Caught nearly 12,000 metric tonnes of fish (about 26 million pounds) - Hauled in a catch with a dockside value of more than $33 million - Contributed $234 million (Canadian) to Ontario's economy Forestry Historical Development: - Early logging to clear land - 1830s - commercial logging began - Paper-making began slowly, now world leaders o Processing puts lots of mercury actively discharges in lakes - Loss of resource - Water and land pollution Current Ontario - 80% of Ontario’s area (Ontario has approximately 85 billion trees) - Many Ontario towns have at least one forest industry - 80% of forest owned by the province - 9% is in parks - Volatile industry o Build houses from softwood Ontario’s Forest Industry - In 2011, the value of Ontario's forestry sector products = $14 billion - Majority was pulp and paper products = $8.0 billion - Sawmill, engineered wood and other wood product manufacturing = $3.9 billion - Value-added furniture/kitchen cabinet manufacturing = $2.1 billion - In total, it supports almost 200,000 direct and indirect jobs in over 260 Ontario communities - Of these, 40 are categorized
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