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Lecture 22

Geography 2011A/B Lecture 22: GMOs

4 Pages
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Department
Geography
Course Code
Geography 2011A/B
Professor
Wendy Dickinson

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GMOs
GMOs (I)
Traditional Agriculture (10,000 years ago)
- Origin: People who were gathering seeds/fruits picked the bigger, tastier, and sweeter fruits and
brought them back to the camp and discarded some seeds that would have grown, so they now had a
close food source.
Traditional Agriculture started w/artificial selecting and breeding!
Selective breeding of plants and animals continued throughout history...
wild ancestors vs. crop nowadays can look very different.
3 Types of Traditional Agriculture
1) Selective use of natural variants appearig i ature or iultiated populatios ladraes
2) Controlled mating to purposel reoie desirale gees/traits fro differet parets ultiars
3) Monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or genetic markers using molecular tools for
trakig /i geoe ariatio iproed ultiars
- controlled mating but using molecular tools to provide us w/specifics as to what is happening
i the geoe to ake sure ere gettig the geoes e at.
Natural Variants landraces
Controlled Mating cultivars
Monitored Recombination improved cultivars
As we more intensely select for specific traits, we reduce the genetic diversity of our crops...
- The trade off between agricultural performance (due to selective breeding) and genetic diversity
- As we keep selectively breeding, crops lose genetic diversity. Losing genetic diversity makes system
ore ulerale to pest, disease, et. ere akig the less resiliet – when a change comes along,
these sstes at asor that hage.
Traditional
Agriculture
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Description
GMOs GMOs (I) Traditional Agriculture (10,000 years ago) - Origin: People who were gathering seeds/fruits picked the bigger, tastier, and sweeter fruits and brought them back to the camp and discarded some seeds that would have grown, so they now had a close food source. Traditional Agriculture started w/artificial selecting and breeding! Selective breeding of plants and animals continued throughout history... wild ancestors vs. crop nowadays can look very different. 3 Types of Traditional Agriculture 1) Selective use of natural variants appearing in nature or incultivated populations (landraces) 2) Controlled mating to purposely recombine desirable genes/traits from different parents (cultivars) 3) Monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or genetic markers using molecular tools for tracking w/in genome variation (improved cultivars) - controlled mating but using molecular tools to provide us w/specifics as to what is happening in the genome (to make sure were getting the genomes we want). Natural Variants landraces Traditional Controlled Mating cultivars Agriculture Monitored Recombination improved cultivars As we more intensely select for specific traits, we reduce the genetic diversity of our crops... - The trade off between agricultural performance (due to selective breeding) and genetic diversity - As we keep selectively breeding, crops lose genetic diversity. Losing genetic diversity makes system more vulnerable to pest, disease, etc. (were making them less resilient when a change comes along, these systems cant absorb that change).
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