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Lecture 4

Geography 2011A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: North American Free Trade AgreementPremium

3 pages10 viewsSummer 2018

Department
Geography
Course Code
Geography 2011A/B
Professor
Wendy Dickinson
Lecture
4

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Lecture 4.1 Heartland
Description of a Heartland ~ Toronto
- Small land area
- High concentration of people
- Highly urbanized
- Corporate control (headquarters and decision makers)
- No space for Primary industries, so the rest dominate
- Industrial core
- Cities with diverse economies and good physical qualities
- Access to markets
- Well integrated system of cities (seamless)
- Capacity for innovation and change (because of resources, part of control)
- Competitive Geographic Advantage: Flat, easily cleared, accessible by water, cheap resources, close
to US, concentration of resources
Description of a Hinterland ~ Sudbury
- Large land area
- Low concentration of population, scattered, rural
- Low income, more unemployment
- Primary industries dominate, fewer jobs, sensitive to change
- Specialized economies (like towns built around ores)
- Limited political power/capacity for change
- Dependency on Heartland
- Less innovation because of less resources
Heartland Process How to Become a Heartland
- Growth that is self-sustained
- Economies of scale and conglomeration (businesses close together, ie. bank = essential)
- Growth attracts more growth
- Demand for staple commodities
- Purchase resources for Hinterland
- When all geographic competitive advantages are present it is hard to stop
- Needs lots of people, we have this because we have plentiful resources and are attractive because of
already settled groups (manpower)
- Must do more than sustain; export
- Exchanges provide Hinterland with capital, labour, technology, entrepreneurship, etc.
- Attract people with high wages, technology, and resources to Hinterlands to ensure Primary
industries are continued and supporting Heartland
- Government transfers to Hinterlands because they can’t access all services and we say all Canadians
should have the same access
Ontario as a Heartland
- Along Windsor-Quebec axis, South-Central Ontario and GH
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