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Independence and Authoritarian State Building.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
Geography 2020A/B
Professor
Anthony Weis
Semester
Winter

Description
Jan, 31, 2013 Independence and Authoritarian State Building Saint Domingue (Haiti) in 1789: -They made up 2/3 of French overseas trade and they were the most lucrative colony in the world -There were around 500,000 slaves there (8:1) and it was the biggest single market for slave imports -The French Revolution lasted from 1789-1799 and the Haitian Revolution from 1791-1803 -The National Assembly created the ‘Declaration of the Rights of Man’ where ‘free people of color’ could seek and be refused citizenship through French planters and this led to revolt because even though they were privileged they didn’t like the second class status -The slaves were seized on divisions and they revolted under the leadership of Toussaint Louverture and they initially sided with Spain -In 1794 the French abolished slavery and Louverture brought the forces to the side of the French Republic -Louverture repelled a British attack in 1798 and he later tried to free slaves in Santo Domingo -Napoleon seized power in France in 1799 and he sought to restore slavery and in 1801 he sent 35,000 French troops as well as mulattos but he was defeated -Louverture was lured to a meeting to discuss peace but he was imprisoned and he died in captivity and the new leader was J.-J. Dessalines who in 1804 claimed Independence for Haiti (meaning a ‘higher place’) and this was the world’s first and only successful slave revolt but the new nation was born in ruins -Thomas Jefferson was powerful advocate for liberty and the Declaration of Independence says “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” but he said “[we must] confine the plague to the island” when referring to the power of the slaves in Haiti -This was the beginning of a new nightmare and Dessalines was murdered in the first of 30 coups -Jefferson stops US trade with the and they would not recognize their independence for 60 years because he claimed France still owned them -Haiti at independence was devastated by war and their agriculture was in ruins and their economy was designed to produce sugar but they were cut off economically and politically and they were saddled with enormous debt -In 1825 they agreed to par “compensation” of 150 million golf francs for France’s losses and this was around ten years worth of the total revenue in Haiti and with their economy in ruins because of the war paying the debt meant borrowing from French banks -Haiti was born essentially bankrupt and by the late 1800s 80% of Haiti’s budget was going towards paying France Haiti effectively pays slave masters 3 X: -Initially their labour made them a lucrative colony but compensating France for this “loss” of labour created their great debt that they owed huge interest on and their debt persists even in this century and equals to a modern-day 20 billion dollars with interest on top of that Jamaica: -In 1807 the British end the slave trade and in 1831-32 there was the Sam Sharpe Rebellion which was a peaceful strike at first but it turned into a rebellion -Sharpe said on the gallows "I would rather die upon yonder gallows than live in slavery“ and in 1834 the Abolition Bill was passed by the British Parliament and he has a monument in Montego Bay Jamaica -Abolition debates centred on liberal British and Eurocentric historians liberal British and Eurocentric historians who emphasize rising humanism and the abolition movement (especially Churches) as the cause for abolition versus West Indian historians who saw the pressure from the slaves as the decisive blow -Samuel Sharpe was the main instigator of the 1831 Slave Rebellion, which began on the Kensington Estate in St. James which was “largely instrumental in bringing about the abolition of slavery” and he is a national hero to them -In Jamaica 1% of landowners own 50% of the land and “the abolition of slavery was a social revolution however it must also be recognized that the revolution did not then complete, and has not yet completed, its full cycle” and property relations shave to be sanctified and planters compensated -The British planters faced the dilemma of how to maintain the cheap labour supply after Emancipation so they used cheap free labour where plentiful and use indentured labour where it was scarce (on the islands closer to South America) and they sought to replace labour with capital where possible (mechanize) Jan, 31, 2013 -There was the rise of the Jamaican peasantry partly because 80% of Jamaica is hilly or mountainous and 96% landholders have around 35% of the land Emancipation: -Emancipation occurred in 1821 in Mexico and Central America, 1848 for the remaining French colonies, 1850s for most of former Spanish South America, 1865 US, 1870s for the Spanish colonies (Cuba and Puerto Rico), and in 1888 for Brazil (site of most of the 19 century slave trade) Treaty of Madrid (1750): -Portuguese Brazil was extended to the 46th meridian and essentially this recognized the on-the-ground reality -By 1810 the Spanish population was only around 1/5 of the total but they were politically dominant and in 18
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