Geography 2020A/B Lecture Notes - Minor Cooper Keith, Monroe Doctrine, Indentured Servant

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Published on 31 Jan 2013
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Jan, 31, 2013
Independence and Authoritarian State Building
Saint Domingue (Haiti) in 1789:
-They made up 2/3 of French overseas trade and they were the most lucrative colony in the world
-There were around 500,000 slaves there (8:1) and it was the biggest single market for slave imports
-The French Revolution lasted from 1789-1799 and the Haitian Revolution from 1791-1803
-The National Assembly created the ‘Declaration of the Rights of Man’ where ‘free people of color’ could seek and
be refused citizenship through French planters and this led to revolt because even though they were privileged
they didn’t like the second class status
-The slaves were seized on divisions and they revolted under the leadership of Toussaint Louverture and they
initially sided with Spain
-In 1794 the French abolished slavery and Louverture brought the forces to the side of the French Republic
-Louverture repelled a British attack in 1798 and he later tried to free slaves in Santo Domingo
-Napoleon seized power in France in 1799 and he sought to restore slavery and in 1801 he sent 35,000 French
troops as well as mulattos but he was defeated
-Louverture was lured to a meeting to discuss peace but he was imprisoned and he died in captivity and the new
leader was J.-J. Dessalines who in 1804 claimed Independence for Haiti (meaning a ‘higher place’) and this was the
world’s first and only successful slave revolt but the new nation was born in ruins
-Thomas Jefferson was powerful advocate for liberty and the Declaration of Independence says “We hold these
truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness but he said “[we must] confine
the plague to the island” when referring to the power of the slaves in Haiti
-This was the beginning of a new nightmare and Dessalines was murdered in the first of 30 coups
-Jefferson stops US trade with the and they would not recognize their independence for 60 years because he
claimed France still owned them
-Haiti at independence was devastated by war and their agriculture was in ruins and their economy was designed
to produce sugar but they were cut off economically and politically and they were saddled with enormous debt
-In 1825 they agreed to par “compensation” of 150 million golf francs for France’s losses and this was around ten
years worth of the total revenue in Haiti and with their economy in ruins because of the war paying the debt
meant borrowing from French banks
-Haiti was born essentially bankrupt and by the late 1800s 80% of Haiti’s budget was going towards paying France
Haiti effectively pays slave masters 3 X:
-Initially their labour made them a lucrative colony but compensating France for this “loss” of labour created their
great debt that they owed huge interest on and their debt persists even in this century and equals to a modern-day
20 billion dollars with interest on top of that
Jamaica:
-In 1807 the British end the slave trade and in 1831-32 there was the Sam Sharpe Rebellion which was a peaceful
strike at first but it turned into a rebellion
-Sharpe said on the gallows "I would rather die upon yonder gallows than live in slavery“ and in 1834 the Abolition
Bill was passed by the British Parliament and he has a monument in Montego Bay Jamaica
-Abolition debates centred on liberal British and Eurocentric historians liberal British and Eurocentric historians
who emphasize rising humanism and the abolition movement (especially Churches) as the cause for abolition
versus West Indian historians who saw the pressure from the slaves as the decisive blow
-Samuel Sharpe was the main instigator of the 1831 Slave Rebellion, which began on the Kensington Estate in St.
James which was largely instrumental in bringing about the abolition of slavery and he is a national hero to them
-In Jamaica 1% of landowners own 50% of the land and “the abolition of slavery was a social revolution however it
must also be recognized that the revolution did not then complete, and has not yet completed, its full cycle and
property relations shave to be sanctified and planters compensated
-The British planters faced the dilemma of how to maintain the cheap labour supply after Emancipation so they
used cheap free labour where plentiful and use indentured labour where it was scarce (on the islands closer to
South America) and they sought to replace labour with capital where possible (mechanize)
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Document Summary

They made up 2/3 of french overseas trade and they were the most lucrative colony in the world. There were around 500,000 slaves there (8:1) and it was the biggest single market for slave imports. The french revolution lasted from 1789-1799 and the haitian revolution from 1791-1803. The slaves were seized on divisions and they revolted under the leadership of toussaint louverture and they initially sided with spain. In 1794 the french abolished slavery and louverture brought the forces to the side of the french republic. Louverture repelled a british attack in 1798 and he later tried to free slaves in santo domingo. Napoleon seized power in france in 1799 and he sought to restore slavery and in 1801 he sent 35,000 french troops as well as mulattos but he was defeated. Louverture was lured to a meeting to discuss peace but he was imprisoned and he died in captivity and the new leader was j. -j.

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