Lecture 2.pdf

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Feudalism And The Crusades 1/14/2014 11:30 AM
Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia
Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462
It corresponded roughly with the modern French region of
Languedoc Rousillon
It passed briefly to the Moors in the eight century
By the end of the ninth century it became the Gothic march
With the exception of the Iberian peninsula (held by Moors), all of
Europe became Christian % the 9th and 12th countries
Cities In Medieval Europe
o Byzantine Empire
o Carolinian Empire
o Carolinian March (frontier)
o States of the Church
Feudalism from 980 to End of 12th Century
Social Hierarchy
o Kings
o Lords
o Knights
o Vassals
o Villains
o Serfs
Black Death from 1340 to 1374
Killed around 50 million
Led to demographic and economic change
Plague Effect
Black plague (beginning in the mid 14th century)
Population decline from 79,000,000 in 1340 to as low as
55,000,000 in the year 1400
Social unrest in Spain and Germany, restlessness in the Low
Countries, and hostility in Bohemia and Hungary
Antecedents of Modern Europe
By the 14th century Europe was already divided into a grouping of
These groupings foreshadowed the later division into national states
Medieval Nation’s Characteristics
Territorial frontiers
Myths of descent
Biological kinship (race)
Collective identity (flags, shields, shrines)
Ethnic Markers
Identities persist over time
European modern nationalisms are recreations of medieval realities
o The Welsh
o The Scots
o The Catalans
o The Basques
Examples of National Identity
Welsh identity
o Began in post-Roman era
o Resistance against Anglo-Saxons
o Distinct language
Scottish identity
o Constant struggle against England
o Struggle to keep Scottish language
o Defense of territory
Gothic Europe
Notre Dame
Moors in the Iberian Peninsula – 711 and 1492
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to the Iberian Peninsula and
It was governed by Muslims at various times in the period between
711 and 1492
Al-Andalus was divided into administrative areas:
o Umayyad Caliphate (711 – 750)
o Emirate of Cordoba (c. 750 – 929)
o Caliphate of Cordoba (929 1031)
o Caliphate of Cordoba’s taifa (successor) kingdoms
In succeeding centuries, Al-Andalus became a province of the
Berber Muslims dynasties of the Almoravids and Almohads
Afterwards it fragmented into a number of minor states, most
notably the Emirate of Granada
For large parts of its history, particularly under the Caliphate of
Cordoba, Al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, and the city of
Cordoba became one of the leadings cultural and economic centres
in both the Mediterranean basin and the Islamic world
The Crusades
Crusaders take Jerusalem 1096
Second Crusade 1147
Third Crusade 1189
Fourth Crusade establishes Constantinople 1204
Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eight Crusades from 1216 – 1270
Fall of Constantinople 1454
Crusades’ Geography
Third Crusade
The Exploits
First Crusade took a number of cities and eventually captured