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2013-01-22 Religion, Feudalism, and the Crusades.docx

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Western University
Geography 2050A/B
Mireya Folch- Serra

Religion, Feudalism, and the Crusades: Heresies and Social Unrest January 22, 2013 -8to12th century: Europe Christianized -little by little, whole territory of Europe Christianized -heresies: people who speak against the dogma of the religion -some people challenged the dogma of dominant religion, known as heretics, and they were persecuted -Cathars (?) -Christians but heretics -challenged power of the pope and dogma -Europe became Christendomnot easy to path of Christianity -path of wars and harsh treatment and dissension the teachings of the church and pope -Religious War doesn’t end with disappearance of heretics; it continues Christendom • Territorial reach of the early Christian European kingdoms and empires, culminating with the Holy Roman Empire in 962 • The Empire would endure for more than 800 years, until it was dismantled by Napoleon in 1806 -land of Christianity -how Christians began to limithtthithkingdoms and empires from the year 500 to early 4 /5 /6 century period (till we reach Charlemagne Period) -Holy Roman Empire founded in 962 -lasted until 19 century (day that Napoleon eliminated the Empire) -lasted 8 centuries -it was the main cup of Europeintegral in Christianity of Europe -map: the changes of territory due to war; result of constant movement -change in boundaries -Barbarians fought against Christendom -Carolus (Charlemagne’s Latin name) -Carolingian Empire -no Christendom in the peninsula -it was Islamized, and then later became extreme Catholized -unexpected change; paradoxical Septimania • Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 • It corresponded roughly with the modern French region of Languedoc Rousillon • It passed briefly to the Moors in the eighth century • By the end of the ninth century it became the Gothic march (frontier) • With the exception of the Iberian peninsula (held by Moors), all of Europe became Christian % the 9 and 12 centuries -most beautiful medieval cities that are still intact: Carcassonne, Narbonensis, (Septimania area) -Visigoths: Moors did not colonize yet -way in which Christianity will defend itself against invasion of Islam by a series of war -end of 9 century: Gothic march (frontier)cannot be penetrated (but briefly for the Moors) -Moors won’t be able to penetrate it; so they can’t move up Western Europe -all of Europe became Christian 8% of the 9 to 12 centuries -took a while for them to be Christians -fought against tribes that were not Christians (e.g. Pagans, Moors from South) -constant wars, invasions, regaining territory, etc. -took a while to establish Christianity throughout Europe Charlemagne’s Empire 814 -caliph: Muslim king -gothic march defended by Christian warriors against the Caliphate??? Cities in Medieval Europe Empires: 1. Byzantine Empiretoday’s Turkey -Christian empire 2. Carolinian Empire 3. Carolinian March (frontier) Frontier between empire of Islam and empire of Christianity 4. States of the Church -history of Europe: constant movement -rebuilding things th Feudalism from 980 to end of 12 century Social hierarchy • King • Lords • Knights • Vassals • Villains • Serfs -important period of socialization and development of Europe -social hierarchy -Europe opposed to Americas: there is still tradition of nobility and aristocracy -social hierarchy perpetrated in most countries in Europe -nobility/knights: they are the ones who fight for Christendom -go to Jerusalem and bring it back to Christianity (Crusades) -Vassals: free people -citizens -businesspeople, doctors, people involved in commerce, etc. -villains: people who have lesser jobs in feudal society -serfs: not free; not completely enslaved -they have some degree of say in their own lives; between slavery and freedom Black Death from 1340 to 1374 • Killed around 50 million • Led to demographic and economic change -Black Death: worse than the wars -Black Death killed thousands of people of all social class -it did not discriminate; did not spare lives of powerful; reached everybody -decimated society -artists and painters showed the dramatic change of Black Death -killed around 50 million people -killed more than half of population of Europe -lead to demographic and economic change -existential change: some people invulnerable?? Black Death -incredible reach of Black Death in Europe -virus was brought by rats -bubonic plague; rats infected -back in those days, they didn’t know rats were the cause -thought it was god punishment; don’t know scientifically that the rats brought the plague -video: -Black Death first arrived in Europe -it permeated and was a trauma that lasted a long time -the plague was worse when it was close to water; severity lessened when you go more into the land Plague effect • Black plague (beginning in the mid-14th century) • population decline from 79,000,000 in 1340 to as low as 55,000,000 in the year 1400 • social unrest in Spain and Germany, restlessness in the Low Countries, and hostility in Bohemia and Hungary. -social unrest in some countries -repercussions -Black Death really changed a lot of interactions in Western Europe Antecedents of modern Europe • By the 14th century Europe was already divided into a grouping of regions • These groupings foreshadowed the later division into national states -formation of nationalities and formation of countries -regions are older than the countries -borders of countries have been changi
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