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2013-01-29 The Idea of Europe.docx

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Geography 2050A/B
Mireya Folch- Serra

The Idea of Europe Modern Europe from the 16 to the 18 centuryth Achievements and Failures January 29, 2013 -oppression of Europe: not just to defend areas of world, but within Europe they oppressed each other -conflicts between high achievements and failures Antecedents of modern Europe -14 century: way of countries, growing boundaries became sketch of modern Europe -name of nation -how did countries get their country name -they acquire their names during these times After MiddleAges th th -14 -mid-15 century: new era -new scientific discoveries: clock, printing press, compass (navigation) etc. -complete revolution of the way people lived -magnetic compass (important for colonial enterprise) -gunpowder: allowed for modern weaponry -Europeans, instead of bow and arrows and swords, had guns -mechanical clock -three inventions: propelled Europe from middle ages to modernity -printing press: 1440 invented by Gutenberg? -the inventions separated from middle ages to modern age -allowed Europeans to advance their culture Examples of national identity -each of its areas have its own ethnic makeup and language -French principality Brittany: more to the Welsh -culture close to Welsh -Normandy: northern France -Brittany: different from Languedoc and Parisian France -we usually see France as a whole entity -but there’s different cultural, ethnic, and language differencesmakes Europe a cultural mosaic -mosaics of people limited by country -nation state made up of different people and elements Kingdom of Scotland, Principality of Wales and England More examples of national identity • France’s principalities: o Brittany o Normandy o Languedoc Saint-Nazaire, Languedoc Roussillon France’s Normandy, Bretagne & Languedoc Creation of geographically defined states -peoples in Europe like to have identities and refer to their origins and customs -human way of forming one’s history and identity -attempt to homogenize failed National sentiment 1. Bretons in France 2. Catalans in Spain 3. Welsh, Irish and Scots in Great Britain • In all cases ethnic markers have persisted over time • Absorption by the state did not end national sentiment • In sum: MODERN NATIONALISMS (of minorities)ARE RECREATIONS OF MEDIEVAL REALITIES -France, Spain, Great Britain have tried to erase these different markers -to homogenize language – but haven’t been successful -because they always come back -never succeed completely -people speak the language underground if they were barred from speaking it in public -absorption by state never ended; cannot get rid of regional, national sentiments -there’s a lot of resistance to change one’s culture and identity (once religion) -religious wars, ethnic wars take a big toll but don’t eradicate convictions of individual minority people What is nationalism? • A doctrine of popular freedom and sovereignty • The people must determine their own destiny and be masters in their own house • They must control their own resources • They must be gathered together in a historical territory i.e. a homeland • The three themes of nationalism: autonomy, unity, identity -growth concept -e.g. being Italian, French, German, etc. -within countries, there’s minority country nationalism -doctrine of popular freedom and sovereignty -in foreign countries, you use French passport to travel and recognized as French -within France, you have feelings of minority nationalism -they must control their own resources -in charge of minerals, water, other material resources of your area -can result in clashes with neighbours who want to use the resources -historical territory -e.g. Sicily; Sicilians have their own language, cuisine, regional identity than an Italian Milan -autonomy: masters of own home -unity: be together with people we share culture, language, etc. -identity: distinguished from other people -empowering; but all types of nationalism can be aggressive towards other sense of nationalism..? Europe’s achievements and failures Disruptive forces: • Plagues • Wars • Imperialism Achievements: • Scientific discoveries • Art and architecture • Humanist philosophy After MiddleAges: the Renaissance (14 to 16 centuries) • Art-- Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael • Discovery-- Columbus, Vasco da Gama • Religion-- Martin Luther’Reformation and Catholic Counterreformation • Politics– Niccolo Machiavelli • Science-- Copernicus, Scientific Revolution • Philosophy-- Birth of HUMANISM –revival of Greek scholars -given to the world some of the most impressive contributions at many levels -art: Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, etc. -discovery: Columbus, Vasco de Gama (Portuguese) -religion: Martin Luther’s Reformation and Catholic Counterreformation -before Martin Luther, everyone listened to the Pope -Martin Luther later rebelled against authority of Pope in Rome and became a Protestant -Catholics countered Protestant Reformation -war between Catholics and Protestants -politics -science: Copernicus -philosophy: humanism: revival of Greek thought -Greek or Roman culture seen as pagan and sinful; shunned by medieval thinkers -but during Renaissance, they brought back Greek philosophers -Leonardo: Mona Lisa -Raphael: less hierarchy, more humanized -Raphael: School ofAthens -homage of the times to Greek philosophers What is humanism? • Renaissance humanism was a movement that began in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century • It revived the study of Latin and Greek, with the resultant revival of the study of science, philosophy, art and poetry of classical antiquity. • It marked a great change from the Biblical values of humility, introspection, and meekness espoused in the MiddleAges. • Beauty was held to represent a deep inner virtue and value, and an essential element in the path towards God • Renaissance humanists believed that music, art, grammar, rhetoric, oratory, history, poetry, should be practiced by all levels of wealth. They also approved of self, human worth and individual dignity. • Noteworthy humanist scholars from this period include the Dutch Erasmus, the English Thomas More the French writer Francois Rabelais, the Italian poet Petrarch and the Italian scholar Pico Della Mirandola.And last but not least Leonardo de Vinci. -humanism in renaissance: reworking, rethinking, and bringing back ideas of classical Greek -revived study of Latin and Greek -reverence to human body; naked body recreated in sculpture, art, etc. -great change from biblical values of humility, etc.... -back then, certain things were covered -music, art, etc. not just for elites, but should be extended to everyday lives of everyone -complete difference f
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