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Notes of Rivers of the World.docx

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Geography 2071F/G

Notes of Rivers of the World River 1 – The Amazon  Setting • Amazon is located in South America  • It is the largest river basin in the world • Drain into the Atlantic  • 70% of the Amazon is located in Brazil  • Amazon basin is also in Equador, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, Guyana,  Suriname, French Guiana   • Amazon river has multiple names  • Major Tributaries of the Amazon are Negro, Tocantins, Maderia, Tigre • Has over 1100 tributaries  Flow  • 220,000 cubic meters per second flows into the ocean  • Mouth of Amazon is right at the equator,  • There is no winter, spring, fall, only wet and dry season • Water level is 5 – 15 meters higher in the wet season than the dry season  Sediment  • Amazon picks up most of its sediment from the Andes in Peru, this part of the  basin is called the muddy river because of all the sediments • Rio Negro starts in the lowlands of the Amazon and this region is known as the  black river because there is hardly any sediment in here  • In the eastern region of the basin is the clear water regions where there is hardly  any sediment or organic material  • When these tributaries meet, some interesting effects occur like swirls, linear  differences which happens because of mixing of different types of water • Bank erosion contributes a massive amount of sediment to the river • Only a small amount of that sediment flows into the Atlantic which builds up new  banks because of floodplains and what not Human Impact  • South America is growing very quickly and therefore the Amazon is becoming  that much more important  • No bridges because it is so wide/ Also no dams on the river itself • Road network is expanding making it easier for people to live there However the  flooding still makes it quiet difficult  • Belo Monte Dam is in construction on the Xingu River of the Amazon  • One of the most controversial engineering projects in the world  • It will be the third largest hydro dam in the world  and will cost around 17 billion  • Environmental impact is unclear however the tribes that live next to the river will  indefinitely be effected  • During construction flow of river will be very low making it touch for natives to  get water  • Construction has been on and off due to rulings of judges  Logging  • Many areas around the Amazon are being deforested, when there is re­growth of  the forest, it is not of the same quality as the original  • 50% of the rain that falls in the area evaporates because of vegetation • Because of this, less water is being contributed back into the atmosphere when we  cut down the trees • 100% is getting smaller  • There is a massive change in the water levels between areas where logging has  occurred and where logging hasn’t occurred  • Between 1996­2005 a chunk of rainforest the size of lake Ontario was being cut  each year • Many studies project the deforestation of the Amazon, saying less trees equals  less evaporation which will reduce the rainfall and makes water even more scarce  than it already is  • Humans   log  to gain  access  to  wood,  grazing  areas   for  cattle,  hardwood,  settlements, Crops, Gold mining (Amazon basin has a very high gold reserve  which humans remove to get to the gold) Mercury  • 400 Tons of gold mined globally each year  • There are very big mining set ups, but also small illegal ones occur often  • Mercury is used to separate the gold and turn it into a bigger nugget • Illegal Miners are the ones that are contributing to deforestation and also to the  mercury that is ending up in the river  • Mercury is very harmful to the ecosystem, it contaminates the water and the fish  which we than eat  River 2 – Mississippi River  Setting  • The Mississippi Basin is almost entirely in U.S and a very small section is in  Canada  • Main tributaries are Missouri river, Ohio river, and Arkansas river  • Mississippi has been called the world’s greatest land building machine because it  carries so much sediment from the Rockies  • When the river floods, the sediment goes over the bank and stays there when it  recedes. This has created extra land in the New Orleans area • Most of the Mississippi water is from rain fall  • The more south you go the water flow grows exponentially, due to the entrance of  the tributaries coming into it  • Half the water is diverted to the west into Atchafalaya bay then the Gulf, while  other half goes through Mississippi then the Gulf  History • Hernando De Soto was the first European to cross the Mississippi. He came in  1542 looking for gold and started in Florida and travelled north and west and  eventually found the Mississippi. Killed a lot of natives and found no gold and  died of fever on banks of Mississippi • Marquette was the next to use the Mississippi in 1672. He was in Sault Marie and  heard about it as a trading route. He saw natives with items in hand from De  Soto’s exploration and assumed Spanish had already settled there • La Salle came to Mississippi as an adventurer who wanted to check it out from  1684­1687. He explored the south and claimed it in the name of France and  named it Louisiana in honor of the King  • Jean­Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville and Pierre le Moyne d’Lberville founded  New Orleans. This was not a good area because of mosquitoes and swampiness  but great because the Mississippi passes through it and that’s the only way to  reach the heartland of the states • The Mississippi was the way for business deals to get done back then because of  this New Orleans grew hugely and was the connecting city between south and the  north  • It was the fastest growing city in North America in the early 1800’s. By 1840 the  growth of New Orleans began to get outmatched by other cities in the States  • After 1950 the population began to start dropping because it was too small for  very large ships  Problems  • Flooding  • Meandering  • Bank Erosion  • Channel bed Topography  • Sandbars  • The river is dynamic because people living close to the river want it to stay the  same. They don’t want it always changing and flooding screwing with their area Solutions  • Levees are build to prevent the flooding from getting into living areas and the # of  levees built took off hugely after 1955  • Spillways  • Bank protection • Dams started increasing very rapidly at the beginning of the 19  century  • Straightening makes it much shorter for boat to travel  • Dredging  • Result is that the river is less dynamic because we put a lot of control and rigidity  in the river  Secondary Impact  • Channel Adjustment is that the slope of the river was much shallower before  the adjustment than afterwards. This is because we have shortened the  distanced between the two points, so because of this the sediment is able to  travel through the river more easily and more sediment is deposited into gulf  and not into lands  • Reduced sediment supply is that sediment gets trapped behind these dams.  The amount of sediment that is being transported down is less and less, which  is causing the land building machine to be deprived of its main material. The  main way that the river built land was by flooding and depositing sediment,  with all the man made intervention it does not flood and it has less sediment  so it can no longer build land and all the sediment just flows into the ocean  • Reduced flood plain and delta building  • Wetland loss Tertiary Impacts  • Enlarged hurricane impacts  • Sea level rise  River 3 – Yangtze River  Setting  • The river is the longest in Asia and third longest in the world. Third largest in  amount of water it conveys  • It has a fairly elongated basin and is over 3000 km in length  • Only Amazon and Congo convey more water than Yangtze  • River starts in Highland in Tibeatean Plateau and drains down from there • The three gorges dam is the largest dam in the world and its located on  Yangtze River • Biggest cities along the river are Shangai, Nanjing, Wuhan and Chongqing  • 40% of all water resources in China come from Yangtze  • Shangia is the chinesse name for Yangzte • There are 700 Tributaries. Some of the major ones are Yalong, Min, Jialing,  Wu. All these tributaries are coming from the North  • 2 Main ones coming from South are both associated with lakes. The first is  Dong tin and Poyang  • River starts in Tibetean Plateau goes through Sichuan Basin then through the  Three gorges and drains into the East China Sea  • Most famous is tiger leaping gorge, which is story about a tiger that was being  hunted and this tiger jumped 7 metres over the gorge to escape. This is the  legend behind the name.  • Downstream from there are 2 big lakes south of river not on it called dongting  and Poyang lake. Both of these lakes are very shallow. Flow Dynamics  • Yangtze basin covers wet area of china. Anything in north is considered dry area. South area is wet part of china. • Doesn’t start in himalyees, starts in tibeatean plateau. Doesn’t get rainfall from himalyees. Where the 2 lakes are located, brings in lots of rainfall and also the sichuan basin brings in lots of water to Yangtze • As you go downstream, discharge in river is increasing notably because you have more tributaries mainly from wet part. There are 2 stations to know: datong, which is last gaging station before ocean. Downstream of that there’s no downstream measurements therefore datong is best measurement. Other one is yinchang, which is downstream of gorges dam. Datong is at end of river. Keep these in mind. When there’s most flow in river, most wet points are in mid summer. In winter, carries less water. • There hasn’t been too much change if you compare 1950s to 2000s. It is slightly more in datong in 2000s. This could be because of climate change or might explain why in 2000s, flow is higher in dtaong than in 50s. The differences are relatively smaller though. Can say its climate change most likely • Fluctuations of flow through time: means that water levels can vary by about 10 metres between lower parts of river system. High water stage means this building will get flooded a lot. Variations throughout year – January there slow flow and august higher flow. Same with the datong lake. High flow can vary depending on how much rain there is year to year • There is flooding that happens as well. This is datong lake. Its small but when flood comes through, water from Yangtze is diverted into this lake. This lake is shallow but when floods come through, there high enough to topple into lake. Water and leave again and go into Yangtze. During low flow when no floods, only water coming from south and flowing into Yangtze. There is no flow from Yangtze into lake. Part of the year, Yangtze will always get water from lake, but part of the year it will also contribute to the lake. • With increase in discharge, you also get increases in sediment. Going upstream, there is low sediment and then picks up sediment in upper regions. After dam when river come out of 3 gorges area, enters flatland and then river isn’t capable of carrying sediment so you lose a lot of sediment and deposits it. It loses its energy and can’t carry all of sediment it was carrying. Annual loads of how much its carrying is deposited and its lost. Look at top right graph. It then picks up more energy and picks up more sediment. • Flow didn’t change much but sediment did. Y? there is staggering amount of dam built within the Yangzte basin since 1950s mostly. The number of dams that have been built is more than 50000 dams in it. Nearly all have been built since 1950s. Most are small dams. Behind these dams, sediment gets trapped. A lot of sediment the river was carrying before can’t make its way through anymore. Gradually, as dams are being built, you get less sediment being carried because gets trapped. TGR is three gorges dam. Other reason is in this central area where lots of erosion is because forests are being cut so you get agriculture on it and agriculture is more erosive than forested land. Since 1980s there is been conservation measure and they are trying to do something about it and stop it or reduce. They started planting new forests. Reforestation was one of measures they did. By doing this, your making it less likely for soil to get eroded. • Sediment that does make it through and ends up in yangzte builds up a delta. You get coastline being up ere and by now, coastline has expanded. Shanghai is built on delta area. This has been the case because of sediments coming through river over time which is being deposited at mount of river. • After 3 gorges dam, before dam was built, that area carried less sediment because river was coming from steep channel into flat land and loses energy and deposits its sediment. In area between the TGD up until the lakes, there is reduction sediment being carried meaning its being deposited meaning river bed is rising. There is less of that happening because dam is being built so sediment is trapped behind dam instead of below river. There was increase in water level because of riverbed increasing. Year after year it got higher and flow got higher. Bottom pic, they built higher levies each year t contain river. It was to adjust in drop of sediment in Yangtze river Human Dimensions • The Yangtze basin is important for agriculture. The two main areas for agriculture are Yangtze basin and the yellow rivers as well. • Fishing is important here. 70% of rice comes from Yangtze basin. The basin is not big and comprises about 20% of all of China. Basin is hugely important in that sense • Industry is also important since many ores are found in the basin. Coal fields are here and same with iron ore. There is also other metal’s and minerals found within the basin as well or close to the river • Deposits of copper or iron are found in the basin so the basin is important for agriculture and industry equally • Another city upstream is wuhan. This is where hun tributary joins Yangtze. Industrial town. In heartland of central china. Commercial centre but lots of steel industry in that area. Upstream further is TGD. The only big city after that is Chongqing • For long time, only way to transport anything there was by boat and down the river. As shipping line, it became a place where people live and thrive economically. They build cities around there. First major city is shangahi. Has 23 million people living in it. It is China’s main commercial and financial center. One of major financial centers of the world too. It is an important port city as well. Its connection between ocean going vessels and all the rest of vessels. Largest container port in world. 60000 containers handled each day. The richest place in china as well – shanghai. As you go further upstream, the GDP per capita is gradually decreasing. 4 times more GDP in shanghai. • Next city down is Nanjing which is a big commercial and industrial center as well. Most of traffic that goes north to Beijing will pass through this city. It is not as famous as shanghai. It is famous for something that happened in1937 when there was war between china and japan. After siege, they took revenge on population for not surrendering fast enough and there was enormous massacre killed by army. Many women were raped by army it was called rape of Nanjing. This is why this city is famous and around 300000 people got killed. • Chongqing is bigger city and bigger than shanghai. Close to 13 million people living in it. It is where jailin river joins Yangtze. This is another tributary. Its an expanding river and affected by 3 gorges dam. A lot of people displaced by reservoir behind the dam moved to Chongqing. • Chongqing became world news in 2012. The river was red. Bloom of algae material and would be red and made river red, this was theory. Another suggestion was pollution. Official story is that there was high rainfall and there was erosion of sediment upstream of river, which was iron sediment’s. So the sediments were carried here. Landslides may have triggered rainfall and this is who sediments were contributed. Landslides seem like most likely story. However, river is polluted • With all the agriculture, sewage entering, industry, people living there. Pollution is in the river.About 20 billion tonnes each year of pollution in river. 80% of it is untreated like sewage. • Baiji Yangtze Dolphin, which exists only in this river of the world. The decrease in population is because of boats that go through the river and make noise, industrialization. Also it could be because of fishing and pollution. This species has been declared critically endangered. Marks the first case of mammal going extinct because of human activity. Also animals such as Giant Panda and Snow Lepord are endangered. These animals exist in 3 Gorges area and Snow Lepord is mainly in Tibetan Plateau River Works • There is about 50000 dams in the Yangtze basin. This is part of study from satelitte imagery. Its possible to distinguish resevoirs from natural lakes. There was study and this is where they found reservoirs. Found about 1000. Could also figure out how many reservoirs have been built through time. Couldn’t trace exactly when constructed. There has been rapid increase in number of dams being built. • One of such dams is the Three Gorges Dam and it is the biggest in the world  and has a great location. This dam was operational in 2003 and is 2 m wide.  The 3 gorges area is high and deep. When dam is being built, can flood behind  it and goes very deep behind it  • Another impact of dam is sediment yield is decreasing after dam was built.  • Unintended side effect was landslides. Have occurred in 3 gorges area since the TGD was built. The frequency and size of them has increased since TGD was built. There had been 93 alone river area just a few years after it was built. When this happens, can actually block river. This is one of tributaries. Thought that extra landslide is occurring because of saturation of the soil. When water levels are higher, soil saturate all the way through up to the lake and additional rainfall saturates even more. In 2007, reservoir has 91 major landslides • There has also been increase in number of earthquakes in area.After 2003, above 1000. Magnitude of them as well is increased. • Grand canal was built over 1000 years ago to take goods from south to bijing and vice versa.Acanal was built and still there. Take water from Yangtze, put in canal and push it through and go naturally down to Beijing River 4 – Tigris and Euphrates  Setting • River is in the Middle East. It is the meeting point between Africa, Asia, and  Europe.  • Euphrates is the longer one and it curves around Tigris.  • At the last area they flow together at the shat el arab. These are strictly two separate rivers before this. They drain into Persian Gulf. The head points are in Tarusus Mountains and Zagrus mountains in Iran on Eastern side. The southern area is low lying valley where it drains into Persian gulf • Countries involved in these basins are Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. According  to some maps Saudi Arabia is also involved • The rainfall mostly falls in east and north from mountains and there is hardly rainfall in south. Unlike the other rivers learned, these rivers don’t get much rainfall. Only in north. Hardly any rainfall further downstream in south. • Tigris carries more water even though shorter and drainage basin is only 25% of attachment area of Euphrates. Tigris is northern of two rivers – this is why! This is close to high rainfall zone. Euphrates is southern of the two rivers. • Looking at Iraq, 98% of Iran gets its water from one of these rivers. These 2 rivers are hugely important for Iraq. Has no other sources of freshwater than these two rivers.Also no that Syria doesn’t have much to do with Tigris. Tigris forms border of turkey and Syria for about 40km and this 40km is only area where Syria has anything to do with river Historical Context • This is part of the Fertile Crescent. Mesopotamia with upper Nile and Jordan River forms crescent or cradle of civilization and called this because this is thought as where agriculture started and humans settled and was first area where agriculture happened and permanent settlements happened and urbanization happened. Happened at about 12000-10000 years ago. Many cities were built with many thousands people living in them. Most famous is Babylon. • 6000 years ago first dynasties was built called ubaid during this time irrigation works were also implemented at this time. Irrigation plants were built to improve agriculture. Also this was the time fresh water conflicts and people fighting to control water happened. In 2500 BC ur lama expanded his empire and he conquered city by laying siege to it and diverting the water away from city and starve city from water until they surrendered. Nebuchadnexur was also extending empire but also defended city Babylon against enemies. So he built mults along river. Diverted part of Euprhates to form ring around city to defend city better. Cyrus the great came along and conquered Babylon and diverted water away because city was dry at mults. Alexander the great was Greek conqueror and was annoyed when had to go to Mesopotamia about all the Cannals and diversions and dam. They hindered his progress. After he conquered it, he destroyed all infrastructure that was built in Mesopotamia like dams and canals. This shows rivers and water supply have been used for military and economic purposes for centuries • Throughout history, we see Euphrates has number of branches on it. River was not always in same position. Sometimes changed naturally. Called avulsions. Number of old cities of the empires are found along old branches of river that no longer exist. Could lead to decline city and decline of empire associated with it. • Droughts, flooding, salinization and avulsion. All these things led to collapse of empire. The fate of the empires has been historically linked to what’s happening of fate of two rivers. The fate of current countries is linked to these two rivers. Current Context • Main reasons dams are build is irrigation, hydropower, flood control • We build canals and dams to support large populations • One of issues Turkey is looking to solve using a project called southeast Anatolia project also known as GAP project. This project is an economic investment from Turkey into the Southeastern area of the country. The western part of country is richer and economically stronger than east. Eastern part is where two rivers start. Turkey wanted to make use of two big resources of these rivers and use them for developing eastern part of country. Number of dams and irrigation projects were started. In this whole area of turkey, there is plan for notable expansion of irrigation work for growing crops so it will help the eastern parts of Turkey to help boost the economy. If water is extracted to fuel irrigation to these points, might impact flow down stream to Syria and Iraq. Water quality may also go down and there are additional consequences. This project consists of a large # of dams being build as well as hydro power stations and irrigation systems. • Atttaturk is one of the dams on the Euphrates and it was completed in 2003 Problems and Geopolitics • Many dams are being built to control water and as a result of that a traditional flow of high peak in spring and low flow throughout late summer and fall is being changed by release of water from these dams • By time you get to Iraq, water passes many dams so you get steady flow throughout entire year. Turkey says this is good thing because don’t need to worry about flooding. You have more water in summer when you need it most for irrigating crops. Can plant things easier. Iraq is saying no this is bad. In summer and fall, get way less water. Total amount of water we get is far less. • There are downstream effects of building dams. When dam was built, downstream affects were usually in same country – according to what we have learned already. This is different scenario. Most dams built in turkey have affects by downstream countries of Syria and Iraq. There are positive and negative impacts. Look at chart. The reduced peak floods makes you lose power of control over water flows. The amount is controlled by country upstream. There is also overall reduction of water flow. As more and more irrigation, more pollution. Water quality is going down as well. • Things will get worse as Syria and Iraq also want to extend their crop growth not only Turkey. • Projections for future for total demand and supply in 1995 was less than supply. By 2010, supply and demand will be same. In 2040, need about 50 cubic km from Euphrates, which is demand. This cannot happen at same time. Similar thing happening in Tigris. Will have little surplus. This is assuming that amount of water of the rivers is remaining constant. This is assumed to decrease for future however. There is huge problem because demand is increasing for future. About 20 cubic meters a year difference between Euphrates and Tigris • Most of water in Euphrates is coming from Turkey. More than half is from turkey from Tigris. As opposed, 98% of Iraq gets water from one of these two basins. Has done this for thousands of years. Most of water falls in turkey. • This raises questions like who decided how much water each country gets? What rights do the diff states have and how should that water be allocated? • Principles have been formed on how to deal with international water rights. Well water is falling in turkey so they can use it and don’t need to share it. If falling in your country and territory, its yours. This is one argument that can be made. This is resource right approach. Means that its on your territory so you can use it. Against that is historical rights. Historically people downstream have relied on this resource so wont be right to take away because take away their livelihoods. These people have a right to use that water because have been doing so for a long time. These 2 approaches are actually called absolute territorieal sovernighty which says all rights go to upstream state. Harmon was most vocal opponent of that. Other approach said that whatever you do, cant do anything that has negative impact on flow of downstream state. Turkey can build dams but should allow water to go through as it always has historically called absolute territorial integrity. Neither of these approaches is used in international law or negotiations. An alternative has been formed called limited territorieal svernightly saying you do have rights being downstream and upstream but don’t do significant harm to downstream countries. Other one is equitable utilization saying reasonably one must balance it. • Fighting has been going on between countries for last two decades on who will get how much water • Current situation: negotiations aren’t going anywhere because upstream country is also strongest military and economic power. Iraq is recovering from wars and doesn’t have chance to enforce its will on turkey. For Syria, has limited military right too and cant enforce anything. Downstream countries are dependent mainly on these rivers. Turkey doesn’t necessarily need these rivers. Turkey has alternative resources to boost its economy. The 2 countries that need the water the most have the least to say about it. Future Context • Climate is changing and population is growing. • Over whole region by end of century there will be less rainfall. Population of Syria is expected to double and Iraq will more than double. The demands will be even more of problem for downstream countries. • These problems will get bigger in future which is water quantity. Associated with that is problem with salinization (water staying behind dams and evaporating and minerals staying in there and making it salty). This makes water quality decline The Marshes • These 2 regions are of interest. One is Kurdistan and lowland Marshes. Shaded area is area that potentially could be independent Kurdistan if there will ever be one (unlikely). Will stretch to part of Iraq, Iran and chunk of Turkey • Lowland Marshes: near Persian Gulf where Tigris is coming and merging with Euphrates where there is shat el arab. There they come together there is number of marshes. Its flat area. • By 2000 90% of marshes were destroyed • This is due to dams being built River 6 (PART 1) – The Danube Setting • Danube is 3000 km and is an elongated basin, which goes through a # of countries and this basin is mostly in Eastern Europe • The basin covers 11 countries including Switzerland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Bolivia, • The river starts in Black Forest Mountains not in theAlps • The main tributaries are Te inn, Tisa, Sava Rivers Danube Regions • There are 3 main region on the river. First is uplands through black forest area up until lowland basin. Second is middle sector than you have lower sector, which goes up to delta and to the black sea. • Hufingen is a small river near Danube. Linz is towards bottom end of it • Cities are along the way too. regensberg is an old town and the bridge is from 1140. Its very old. It’s a heritage site • Bigger town is Passau. About 50000 people. University town. The inn river joins the Danube at Passau • If you leave the upper sector and go into middle sector, you enter low line basin that has salt and has good fertile soils and great location for doing agriculture. This was historical rich area in sense that it had minerals that it needed. This is where you find the 4 capitals that are locate on Danube. • Frist one is Vienna. Most pleasant city to live in in the world. Vienna is famous for classical composers like Mozart and Beethoven. • Bratislava is next capitol and its capitol of Slovakia. Its old roman town. • Budapest is another capitol. Its originally two cities, one on either side of Danube. • Last is Belgrade capitol of Serbia. This is where the last of the tributaries, the sava, joins. This might be the oldest settlement in Europe where humans left Africa and went to middle east. First settlement could have been at the sava and Danube which later formed Belgrade. Many wars have been fought where Belgrade was target. Involved in 115 wars. Completely destroyed 44 times and rebuilt. • After Belgrade, you go through mountainous region where the river cuts through and it has deep gorge there. That gorge is called irongate. • Gorges area: there are 2 dams built there. Both called iron-gate dam 1 and 2. At this point he Danube forms border between Serbia and Romania. Two countries solve on who would be responsible by splitting the dam. The functioning of the dam and the electricity it generates is equally split. • The backwater behind dam through these gorges is very large. It stretches back almost 300 km. • It was noticed in orsova. Orsova partly got flooded and they decided to rebuild the city at a higher level. If you go downstream of orsova you enter low line area of Danube until you hit the delta area. The delta is great place for wildlife because you have wetlands there and you have various branches where there is flooding at various stages and its ideal place for wildlife. The delta from the Danube is also a unesco world heritage site. it suffered through out end of dictatorship of Romania. The government there was convinced the delta was good for agriculture. He wanted to convert it to agricultural land. People said this is bad because soil would be too salty. He ignored them. Part of delta was converted that conversion stopped when he died. • Most of the delta is located in Romania and is known for wildlife fish and birds Integrated View • Mining, Agriculture, Industrial areas and transportation is big in this area and these cities compete against each other for use of river • Pollution is also a problem in this river • In upper and middle parts of river, you get minerals, which are direct break down of alpine rocks that are transported by river. This is natural pollution. Downstream, you see other things like copper mercury and sinze. These are not natural products. These are there because of mining and wastewater. Just know that it is possible to track whatever of pollution is in the river and we can see what type of cause it had either natural or human • We have various types of activities. Mining, industry, transport, dams being built, fishing for food.. etc. They are not all compatible with each other. Problem is that Danube deals with 11 countries. They found solution for whole thing • In 1994, the 11 countries signed the Danube river protection convention. Took until 1998 until last country approved of it. This convention states that the countries will cooperate with one another to promote sustainability and equality of the water resources. This entails that they look at rational and subtantial use of surface and ground water. The countries involved will have preventable pressure to prevent pollution and risks and hazards. If something did happen, countries will come together to prevent what will happen like a spill. They will all help each other to try and contain the hazard like spill. This convention was one of the first major treaties between countries to agree to manage a river basin. It’s an example for other countries the in world to see how well these 11 countries came together. They are the role a good model and are setting a great example River 6 (PART 2) - The Rhine Setting • This is a much smaller and shorter river than the Danube. Less than half the length of the Danube. The basin is about a quarter of the size of the Danube. • This river starts in theAlps and there are many countries involved in this some of which are France, Switzerland,Austria, Germany, Belgium etc. Rhine-Danube in History • The gap in the Rhine’s shape is actually the Danube. The Rhine grows around the Danube over long time scaled. Rivers Change • The Rhine tapped into the doubs then into zurich tributary. Took more than 4 million years for this to happen. Just know that rivers change! The Danube over time is getting shorter because it is losing headwater and the Rhine is capturing those. This is why Danube doesn’t start at Alps. These rivers starting there have been tapped into by the Rhine • The Rhine basin now flows through the Netherlands. In the past, all of Netherlands was part of sea and the Rhine base started at Germany, which was coastline. 10 mya we had small Rhine River. Its been growing since. As time went on, the Netherlands got Sea water retreated. • About 400000 years ago during one of ice ages, there was big ice sheet covering northern Europe. The Rhine and other rivers were carrying water towards north from Alps. The water couldn’t escape this ice cap so a massive lake was being formed. This lake burst through and made its way through Atlantic. This is first occasion that the English Channel was formed. This channel wasn’t always exposed. This is presumably real creation of this channel. The last time there was land that was exposed before English Channel was about 20000 years ago. England and Europe were connected and only Rhine River separated them. • Another bit of history that deals with the romans about 2000 year ago. They had empire that extended in various directions. The Northern edge of that was made by the Rhine and Danube. They find that these rivers were good natural borders to defend against the barbarians on northern side. • The northern edge of the empire was the Danube river.All the forests involved in Danube were forts that were for defence purposes. These two rivers made border of empire. To some extent, we can still see this in Europe. Rhine Regions • Main valley is called Middle Rhine • Three main tributaries are the neckar, main, and mosel. • The Rhine is used for inland shipping in Europe, as is Danube. It was impossible to go by inland shipping from the Danube into the Rhine. Since 1992, that is no longer necessary. They made a map that links the tributaries of Rhine directly to Danube. • River shipping in Europe has become easier because barges can make their way from western Europe to black sea in one go. • These rivers are popular for flow traffic and because of this a # of simplifications have been made to straightening of river bends. The amount of goods being shipped has only increased • There is upper Rhine, middle Rhine starts were the zig zag bend is and lower Rhine is the area where we find most of current or recent pollution because this is where you find most of the industry • There are 3 rivers coming in from east. Most famous is the ruhr. Other tribuaties are the lipps and the emscher. Industry and Pollution • Lower Rhine is were you find most of the pollut
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