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2012-01-30 Cold War Effects on the Third World.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
Geography 2142A/B
Professor
Mireya Folch- Serra
Semester
Winter

Description
Cold War Effects on the Third World: End of an era January 30, 2012 End of the Cold War -The years of CW (1945-1990) -The 1989 Eastern European Revolutions -Fall of Berlin Wall -Dissolution of Soviet Union (1991) -Foundation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (1992) -former Soviet republics became independent states -total ending of the Cold War The revolutions of 1989 -Berlin Wall: divided Germany in West Germany and East Germany -walls surrounding both parts; there were checkpoints around the area -The Berlin Wall, symbol of a divided Europe, was breached on 9 November 1989 -In 1990, Fragmentation of the Soviet Union Third World and the Cold War -Soviet Union and communist world -developed world had much larger economy Less Developed Countries -MAPS How the Third World was created -Wars of Independence -Decolonization -most of decolonization happened in the 1970s, right in the middle of the Cold War Support from superpowers -Less developed countries strategically located received large quantities of Western assistance during the Cold War -some countries have valuable resources and Western countries take advantage of that -Food aid was not given to the most needy in sub-SaharanAfrica -For strategic purposes food aid was given to Poland, Yugoslavia, Israel, and Egypt -more important politically Creation of Third World -Symbolically the creation of THIRD WORLD occurs after 1945 (beginning of Cold War) -world divided between colonial powers and colonies -Africa,Asia, and theAmericas were divided into colonies -As these former colonies gained political independence, they retained the idea of the state, i.e. to have a sovereign territory Theoretical detour: territoriality and sovereignty -Territoriality = the device through which people construct and maintain spatial organization -Territoriality is the most concrete feature, the most solid foundation of nationhood as a whole -Modern meaning of territory is closely tied with the legal concept of SOVEREIGNTY -sovereignty = you have power over your territory Sovereignty -Sovereignty is never a matter for a single state -it is an inter-state arrangement because sovereignty can exist only for ‘states’that reciprocally recognize each other’s legitimate existence within the framework and norms of the inter-state system Inter-state system -Since 1945 recognition of Sovereignty has been confirmed usually by acceptance into membership of the United Nations -TOGETHER TERRITORYAND SOVEREIGNTY PROVIDE THE LEGAL BASIS OF THE MODERN INTER-STATE SYSTEM Decolonization: African example -many African countries decolonized in the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s Boundaries: the point of contact between states -the relationship between states is often expressed through their frontier contact. When things are going well frontiers become more porous -e.g. it was easy forAmericans and Canadians to go through the U.S.-Canada border -people could use their driver’s license -now, people must bring passports and the customs and borders are much more rigid, less porous and fluid (easily crossed) -The porous borders means that there is more flexibility and fewer barriers to human movement and commercial trade -When things are going badly, barriers go up and interaction is lessened -Examples? -U.S.-Mexico border Boundaries -Boundaries can become a source of tension between states -EX: boundaries between Iran and Iraq, Russia and China, India and Pakistan, Israel and the Occupied Territories of Palestinians The battleground of the CW in less developed countries -Four major shatter-belts of the Cold War: -1.Middle East and southwestAsia -2. SoutheastAsia -3.SouthernAfrica -4.Southeastern Europe Philosophy of non-alignment -a view that rejected the idea of Third World countries having to choose between the Soviet Union and the United States Non-alignment -The rejection of Cold War dichotomy by some leaders of the Third World -They argued that the Cold War had reinforced the gaps in standards of living between the developed and less developed world -philosophy of non-alignment became linked to the New International Economic Order North-South GEOPOLITICS -set of views that measure the impact and legacy of colonialism on the gap in standard of living between developed and less developed countries -EX: Israel considered part of the First World -Palestinians territories inside Israel
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