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2012-03-05 The Geopolitics of Palestine.docx

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Geography 2142A/B
Mireya Folch- Serra

The Geopolitics of Palestine Part 1, Background: history and geography March 5, 2012 -UN, EU, U.S., Russia involved -encompass practically the whole world -Palestine conflict: perfect example of geopolitics Geography of Conflict and Occupation since 1948 -it’s not just a fight with two countries; it’s about occupation Main geopolitical aspects: -Palestinian refugees, and Israel’s undecided borders Main focus: -Racialized territoriality, demography, economy, and freedom Analysis: geographical consequences Palestinian Mandate background (1919-1947) -End of Ottoman Empire (1919-22)  Middle East divided up by France and Britain after First World War (1914-1919)  League of Nations gives control of Palestine and Trans-Jordan to Britain (Mandate 1919-1947) -Trans-Jordantoday’s Jordan -Palestinetoday’s Israel 1947 Britain withdraws from Palestine -Britain cease to be colonizer At the turn of the 19 century -5% Jews, 10% Christians, and 85% Muslims lived in what later would become the Palestinian Mandate -YouTube video: Palestine 1896 After Second World War (1945-1948) -European Zionism supports the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine  United Nations approves the creation of separate Jewish andArab states in Palestine  European countries, USA and others support a Jewish homeland Historical context in 1948 -Arrival of European Jews to Palestine -Palestinian: Creation of Palestinian Diaspora (Nakba) -Israeli: Creation of Israeli state -creation of refugee camps for Palestinians -Involvement of foreign countries (Arab and European) Arabs and Jews armed struggle Before 1948 -European Jews struggle to obtain control of the Mandated Palestine After 1948 -Arab armies attack new state of Israel -In 1949, a truce if secured and boundaries established by the armistice line (1949) Chronology -1936-1939 Arab revolt against colonialism: British Mandate -1947 (November) United Nations GeneralAssembly -UN recommends partition of mandatory Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state -1948 Establishment of the State of Israeli -1950 Jordan annexes the West Bank -1950 Egypt annexes the Gaza Strip -1964 Establishment of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in exile -1967 (June 5-11) The 6 Day War -Israeli vs.Arabs, Jordanians, Egyptians, and Syrians -Israel won -West Bank and Gaza captured by Israeli Forces Creation of “Occupied Territories” -in 1967 Israel captures the Gaza Strip and the Sinai (from Egypt) the West Bank (from Jordan) and the Glan Heights from Syria -1979 Israel withdraws from Egyptian Sinai (Camp David Treaty) -In 2012 Israel retains Golan Heights and West Bank.About 4 million Palestinians live under occupation (their lives and economy controlled by the state of Israel) -No autonomy, no freedom; controlled Events from 1967 to date (2012) -1967 implementation of exclusively Jewish settlements in West Bank (no IsraeliArabs allowed) -1987 (December 8) Israeli Forces kill 4 Palestinians in Gaza -1987 (December 9) First Intifada (revolt against Israeli control) -2000 Ongoing Intifada -lots of people killed -2004 Ongoing Intifada -2005 end of Intifada -2006 Gaza unilaterally unoccupied -Expropriation of remaining lands in West bank for Jewish settlers (about 500,000 settlers as of 2012) -number is increasing due to settlements -2012 No Intifada The geography of boundary changes -Constant boundary change between Israel and surrounding areas -a lot of instability -Palestinian-Israeli conflict highlights how boundary changes reflect and embody the changing relations between states -Boundary change highlights global geopolitics of involvement -USA, EU, Russia and UN, the-so called Quartet, it supposed to help solve the conflict nad perhaps restore freedom to the Palestinian people The Middle East -About 6 million Jews live in the midst of about 200 millionArabs -(Israeli has a population of 7.5 million including 1.5 millionArabs) Arab World, except Turkey and Iran -includes: NorthernAfrica (Morocco,Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Mauritania), Somalia, Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, UnitedArab Emirates, SaudiArabia, Oman, Yemen Palestinians and freedom -Palestinians are the onlyArabs living under the control of a foreign entity -they live in racialized territories (“a space that a particular race is thought to occupy”) -Critical introduction to cartography and GIS by J.W. Crampton -Palestinians have no control over their economy, taxes, land ownership, media -Are not allowed passageways from village to village (they must go through Israeli manned checkpoints) Palestinian before Isra
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