Class Notes (807,532)
Canada (492,707)
Geography (1,276)

2013-10-22 Energy.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Geography 2143A/B
Milford Green

Energy October 22, 2013 The Consequences of Using Crops for Fuel -consequences of using crops for biofuel -1. Higher costs on the hoof -With nearly 20% of the U.S. corn crop already being turned into ethanol, prices have doubled since last summer. That means higher feed costs for chickens, pigs, and cattle – and higher prices for meat and poultry at the grocery store. -animal feed is used for biofuel -wheat would be used -2. Flower fuel for cars and tricks -Fields of rapeseed in Germany are helping Europe move toward its goal of making 5.75% of diesel fuel from plants. Growing demand for the plant’s oil is pushing up prices for the crop’s other uses, cooking coil and protein meal. -3. Forests cut to make room for fuel crops -The air across Indonesia and Malaysia was thick with smoke last fall as farmers cleared land for oil palm plantations. The two countries are building scores of factories to turn the oil from the plants into biodiesel for export. -forests are cut to allow increase in plant cultivation in biofuel Biodiesel -Biodiesel is a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources -It is made by chemically combining any natural oil of fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol -Much of it is made from soybeans -Cottonseed oil, a by-product of cotton production is another possibility -Canada has 2 major plants: Hamilton and Montreal -not a popular product in North America – much more popular in Europe -biodiesel is fairly thick -soybean production: seeds are essentially controlled by Monsanto -cost would be expensive -North America: biodiesel mainly used in trucking -it’s not a direct substitute for diesel 2011 Production by Country -Germany is world’s highest producers, followed by France, Spain -European consumption is highest in world -all countries on the list are European countries -Canada is about 123.9 1 Production costs -ethanol from grains runs from $0.36-0.46/litre -biodiesel is more expensive to produce than ethanol -biodiesel: -yellow grease: $0.48/litre -tallow: $0.61/litre -canola oil: $0.81/litre -Yellow grease is derived from used cooking oil from the fast-food industry, typically used- frying oils from deep fryers/tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat Map of Canadian Renewable Fuels Production Ocean -Ocean energy draws on the energy of ocean waves, tides, or on the thermal energy (heat) stored in the ocean -Wave energy -The total power of waves breaking on the world's coastlines is estimated at 2 to 3 million megawatts. In favorable locations, wave energy density can average 65 megawatts per mile of coastline. -Tidal energy -Tidal energy traditionally involves erecting a dam across the opening to a tidal basin. The dam includes a sluice that is opened to allow the tide to flow into the basin; the sluice is then closed, and as the sea level drops, traditional hydropower technologies can be used to generate electricity from the elevated water in the basin. Ocean thermal energy conversion -Agreat amount of thermal energy (heat) is stored in the world's oceans. Each day, the oceans absorb enough heat from the sun to equal the thermal energy contained in 250 billion barrels of oil. OTEC systems convert this thermal energy into electricity — often while producing desalinated water. -at present, there are a couple of plants that do this -known since the 1930s -only one or two producing systems like that in the world -fairly difficult to build -one side effect: they can use freshwater Business landscape in 2050 2 WINNERS -Manufacturers of battery-powered cars -Renewable energy companies -Nuclear power generators -Backers of emission-reduction projects in developing countries -Electricity generators that have developed carbon capture technology -Energy-efficient companies in energy-intensive industries LOSERS -Makers of petrol and diesel-powered cars -Oil producers -Coal producers -Traditional coal-fired power stations -Energy-intensive industries such as steel -Consumers with high energy use in developed countries -Manufacturing and construction companies producing energy-inefficient products and buildings 3 -pyramid shows various availabilities of raw materials -reserves: we know it’s there, we have the technology to get it if we need to; no question about its existence -potential supply: thought to exist, but not currently available for production -too expensive or we don’t have the appropriate technology -it becomes a reserve when it becomes technically or economically possible to access -e.g. oil and natural gas or fracking: potential 5 years ago, but now it’s considered part of the reserve -mineral endowment: total amount of whatever it is that we have -whatever resources we pick, we will never use it up -as price of oil gets more expensive, it becomes economic to access more difficult deposits -demand will likely reduce; and substitutes will take place -we will not run out of oil For example -Proved reserves of oil are generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and geological conditions -most oil companies report every year what their reserves are -normally, the reserves go up every year as they continue to explore -some say consumption start to outstrip the additions of reserve Non-renewable resources -Population growth exerts more pressure on resources -Rate of use rapidly rising -Rarely is a resource entirely exhausted -supply and demand -price elasticity -there are supposed to be a finite amount of resources -ever since Black Plague, population has grown -as we get more people, we put more pressure on existing resources -demand for raw materials increase very rapidly -rarely do resources gets entirely exhausted Fuels -when you drill for oil, company does not expect to get out all the oil in the deposits -about 2/3 to 1/3 of oil in deposit is likely to be left behind after extraction -if we can increase recovery rate out of existing wells, that’s like finding free oil -from technological perspective, there is a lot of push for increasing recovery rate -even if that is true, at least ½ of oil resources will still be in the ground by 2040 4 -shows we are not running out of gasoline in the future -if we don’t have oil, we can still produce petrochemicals out of natural gas (can make gasoline out of natural gas) – costly -can make gasoline out of coal as well (the Nazis did it in WWII) -it’s possible Diagram -55% of the world’s oil resources remain unproduced in 2040 -The composition of liquid fuels is changing, but one fact is not: the world continues to hold significant oil resources. Even by 2040, ExxonMobil estimates that less than half of the world’s oil will have been produced. And it is important to note that as new technologies are developed, estimates of the amount of remaining global resources continue to be revised upward. -Liquids supply by type -conventional crude and condensate -there’s enough pressure; don’t need to pump out -coal and gas -it’s known that we can do it, but it’s not economically feasible to do it -we have hundreds of years of coal reserves -oil sands -85-86% of Canada’s oil reserves are in oil sands inAlberta -this form is not conventionally accessible -it’s expensive to get them out -tight oil: oil is trapped in rock that you have to fracture to get them out -deepwater: 6000 feet down in ocean before you hit surface -really deep wells -a lot of pipe -natural gas -can be converted to various kinds of oil -biofuels -may or may not be plant materials -as of now, they are not economically feasible -Fossil fuels distributed unevenly across the world -More developed nations -23% of population accounts for 75% of energy use -Less developed nations -77% of population accounts for 25% of energy use -most of the energy consumer world is done by developed countries -they have heavy industry, high consumption rates -they account for 75% of world’s energy use (by 25% of the world’s population) -bulk of resources used by ¼ of world’s population -very uneven in terms of how energy gets used 5 What a barrel makes -barrel = 55 gallons -you take it to refinery -if your major concern is production of gasoli
More Less

Related notes for Geography 2143A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.