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Geography 2144G - Week 10.docx

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Geography 2144A/B
L.Graham Smith

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Geography 2144G Monday March 17 Week 10 – Development and Management *The take-home exam will ask what the answer is for a bonus question (for attending this class). The answer is: Spirit of the West Evolution or Revolution? • Has the development of tourism in the USA been similar or different to those from other landscapes? • Is the development of tourism a function of government policy and planning? o Sometimes governments want to fund tourism to improve the economy o Or is it a product of entrepreneurial vision? We will look at these questions throughout the lecture. The 15 Cs Framework • The problem is that it tries to capture everything and there is no sorting • The framework is inclusive, but it is hard to remember The STEEP Model • Travel and tourism is a function of social, technological, environmental, economic, and political factors Case Study: Atlantic City • Boardwalk Empire (book and TV show) is based on Enoch Johnson, and documents the development of Atlantic City • Atlantic City was the first purpose-built, entertainment resort in North America • The elites had always gone to certain places, and Atlantic City was based on providing all of these things that people could do during a weekend • The key to building Atlantic City was securing access, and at that time it was through train o They had very low-cost transportation from the cities where people worked to Atlantic City o Once you got there, the hotels, restaurants, shops, were owned by the train companies • The secret to Atlantic City was to be both the government and the developer o The government set the rules for local development and collected the tax • Atlantic City was prosperous through the 20’s during prohibition, but the government decided not to prosecute people for drinking in Atlantic City (this is where it’s beneficial to have your own government) • Atlantic City was bypassed after the Second World War because people no longer used trains to travel, they drove (and it was replaced by Vegas) Las Vegas • Vegas was built based on the lessons from Atlantic City (and Vegas is now the worldwide model) • In the 1930’s, Las Vegas was a small city with a few casinos • Bugsy Seigel from the mob in New York was sent to Vegas because they had an idea for building a resort center in LA • He overspent (they gave him $1 million and he spent $6 billion), so Seigel was killed (but the early origins of Vegas were put in place) • Film: PBS Documentary, Las Vegas An Unconventional Love Story: Sin City o Vegas was essentially a train depot, one street surrounded by desert o It allowed for fast marriages and divorces o After World War II, America was in a state of celebrating and partying o Seigel opened a hotel, “The Flamingo”  Up until this point, the hotels all had a ‘cowboy’ theme  At The Flamingo, guests were met by someone in a suit o Las Vegas was like an island where bad could become good, illegitimate could become legitimate – gangers moved en masse to Vegas because what was frowned upon in the rest of the country was what Vegas thrived on  This was modeled after Atlantic City • Horse racing results were legalized in Nevada (but weren’t legal elsewhere in the U.S.) • Everything was on the highway out from LA (easily accessible) o The Vegas strip is less than 2 miles from the airport • They brought stars and entertainment to Vegas, hoping that people would follow (this was the model) o eg. Elvis Presley, Wayne Newton • The corporations came in after the work had been done (they are not risk takers) and the mob moved out • After the 1970’s, a lot of the things done in past eras that didn’t get public attention got a lot of public attention and couldn’t be ignored (it was no longer acceptable to have mob violence in Vegas) • The basic model for Vegas is that if they keep you long enough, they’ll get your money • Macau is a regional area of China – Vegas has replicated the Venetian hotel in Macau o They have taken the Vegas model of food, entertainment, and gambling (this is what works) and a popular hotel • Punta Cana has a corrupt government o The Dominican used to be renowned for tourism, but the Ministry of Tourism didn’t provide much guidance o They realized the only way to develop a to
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