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Lecture 5

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Geography 3422A/B
Milford Green

Technology 2/12/2013 1:08:00 PM Technology  Technology is a facilitating or enabling agent  The geography of technological changes and knowledge exhibits both concentration and dispersal Types of Technological Change  Least disruptive to most disruptive o Incremental innovations – improving existing technology o Radical innovations – brick phones to iPhones o Changes in the technology systems  Impact on several existing parts of the economy o Changes in the techno-economic paradigm – IT industry changing the way the world works  Large-scale revolutionary change  Different forms of innovation o Product innovation o Process innovation o Organizational innovations enhancing products and processes o Marketing innovation and brands for new and improved products  Different geographical dimensions o Innovation at the global frontier – new to the world o Local innovation – new to the firm or country  Miracles of the small inventors o Air conditioning o Assembly line o DNA fingerprinting o Personal computer o Soft contact lenses o Zipper  Short-term business cycles of growth and recession occur in even the wealthiest countries o Kondratieff waves – long economic waves  Can be found at global and national scales  Tend to last about 50 years and are divided in half with an initial period of growth, followed by downsizing Techno-Economic Paradigm  Elaborates on Kondratieff cycles  Each cycle is labeled as a particular TEP and each is associated with: o Key industries o Infrastructures o Newly emerging industries o Productivity principles o Lead economies o New forms of business organization o Labour relations o Regulation o R&D organization o TEPs are associated with new location principles  Diffusions of a technological revolution seems to work in the same way: o Installation period – creative destruction paradigm shift o Turning point – institutional re-composition and role shift o Deployment period – reaping of growth and social benefits from the prevailing paradigm Firms and Technological Change  Technological change can be rapid  Most firms say they can use their most sophisticated technology for 1-5 years before replacing it o 13% say they would be first adopters o 23% will use what is accepted o 33% want to keep existing technology as long as it works  Disruptive technology – cheaper than the existing version and initially not as good o Poses a cultural problem for established players  100 most innovative companies of 2011: o By industry:  Semiconductors and electronic components  Chemicals  Computer hardware  No Canadian firms o By country  US  Japan  France  Expenditures on R&D in 2011 o US o China o Japan o 9 – Canada o There is a presumption that location matters and the Obama administration has recently said they would like to alter the immigration policies to encourage more domestic R&D  Triadic patent – a series of corresponding patents filed at the European Patens Office (EPO), the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and the Japan Patent Office (JPO) for the same invention, by the same applicant or inventor  Top Canadian R&D: o RIM Ltd. o Bombardier Inc. o BCE Telecommunications Inc. R&D  China has emerged as a major R&D spender – from 2.2% to 12.8% of the world’s share o US is still the largest spender o Canada has decreased from 2.2% to 2% from 1993-2009  US is the largest source of global scientific publications th o Canada is 7  High income countries are the dominant location for R&D  Open innovations – Chesbrough defines it as the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation and to expand the markets for external use of innovation o Increasingly, companies are said to “openly” innovate by enlarging the process to include customers, suppliers, competitors, universities and research institutes, and others, as they rely on outside ideas for new products and processes  Open innovations practices: o Outbound innovation (non-pecuniary) – internal resources are revealed to the external environment without offering immediate financial reward  Disclose in formal and informal ways, inform and publish o Outbound innovation (pecuniary) – firms commercialize their inventions and technologies by selling or licensing out resources developed in other organizations  Sell, license and contract out o Inbound innovation (non-pecuniary) – firms use external sources of innovation like competitors, universities, etc.  Learning formally and informally, crowd-sourcing o Inbound innovation (pecuniary) – firms license-in and acquire expertise from outside  Buy, contract and license in Patents  Japan grants more patents than any other country o Partly explained by multiple counting – each part of a new product required a separate patent application o Elsewhere, the parts would all be submitted in one  China has the most applications th o Canada has the 9 most applications  Generally, small countries grant the most patents o Switzerland, Sweden and Finland benefit from clusters of world-class companies in high-tech sectors and a highly educated workforce o Israel can thank its well-educated immigrants  World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) o Companies have become more eager to create and exploit intellectual property o WIPO notes that spending on R&D has risen even faster than patent applications o Most of the growth in applications has come from second and subsequent filings, reflecting a growing demand for protection in more than one country  It can cost between four and ten times more to get a patent in Europe than in America, Japan or China depending on how many countries are involved Innovations  Innovation – the introduction of new products, processes or services into the market o Can simply be new to the user, not necessarily to the world  Most significant sources of innovative ideas comes from employees  Stages of technology development by innovations effort (front techies significantly adapt to basic production): o Frontier innovation  Create new technologies as leader or follower o Technology improvement and monitoring  Improve products, processes and skills to raise productivity and competitiveness based on R&D,
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