Lecture 9 - The Enlightenment.docx

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History of Science
History of Science 2220
Dorotea Gucciardo

th November 21, 2012 [THE ENLIGHTENMENT –18 Century: 1700’s and 1800’s 3 ELEMENTS THAT INFLUENCED DEVELOPMENT: Culture, Economics, and War 1. Culture: The Enlightenment  Stems from the previous scientific revolution, spreading to the masses by the philosophes (statesmen, reformers, economists, journalists; had access and ability to spread ideas) in the Enlightenment, and shifts to French culture – specifically Paris.  Philosophes  Enlightenment = rejection of Christianity; reason over religion.  Consequently, European intellectual life saw the emergence of secularism.  Believed that the power of reason underpinned by science, allowed them to remake their world.  There was an insistence that science liberated people.  Marquis de Condorcet (1743 – 1794)  Stated that diseases would disappear as they found their causes (an intellectual, communal growth and progress in reason).  Assumes all causes can be discovered.  Medical profession looks away from problems as found in the individual, and blames external factors for disease, rather than internal balance individuals were no longer blamed for disease.  Believed that by understanding what caused humans to tick, society could advance.  John Locke (1632 – 1704)  Englishman  „Theory of Knowledge‟: Everyone starts with a blank slate, and it is marked by experiences and environments – not hereditary or faith-related.  By changing environments and behaviours, we can change human society and thee way people think.  Voltaire (1694 – 1778)  Paris  Studied law but a passionate author, arguing 4 freedom of expression, religion, and separation of Church and state, while under the rule of an absolute monarch. RADICAL WRITING  Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778)  Second generation philosophes, influenced by the first generation of philosophes.  Entirely self-educated, and later and economist and political theorist.  Primary Concern: Preserve human freedom; “Man is born free and he is everywhere in chains.” Humans are born won’t constraints, but are immediately confined by the institutions that define society. French Revolution thinker.  Advocates participatory democracy: government by the people themselves (idealistic). Very influential thinking. 2. Economics  Rapid growth of European countries (after Treaty of Westphalia).  Dramatic expansion of trade, and the Century became known as the age of discovery.  The rich heavily invested in explorers. Land was found by accident (e.g. Columbus). th November 21, 2012 [THE ENLIGHTENMENT –18 Century: 1700’s and 1800’s  Mercantilism  Creation of empires/colonies with the goal of favourable balance of trade. Raw resources brought back to and manufactured in the mother country, and exported back.  Governments become concerned with the health of their people. How much food is being produced? Would their population support their industries?  Development of industries?  1700’s governments carry out studies of wealth, resources, and health of the population. Found that wealth = health. Public health becomes increasingly important, especially infant and maternal health. 3. Warfare  War was common and constant - varying sizes and involvement.  Defining characteristic: REVOLUTIONS. War between people and their governments.  First was the American Revolution (1775 – 1783)  American and British had very different ideas of empire life. A disagreement over taxes caused the settlers to separate. Many consider this revolution to embody the Enlightenment ideas. The Constitution established was derived from 18 Century philosophe ideas.  French Revolution (1789 – 1799)  Clergy  Nobility  Commoners The legal hierarchy pre-1789.  The commoners revolted, and urban and rural uprisings lead to the overthrowing of their government.  Changes were made, reflecting the American Revolution. Including the Declaration of Rights of Man, Constitution, restricted powers of the monarchy , claimed citizens rights to participation in government.  After the revolution, doctors around Paris pioneered modern medicine, reforming medicine with a scientific basis (not possibly pre-revolution).
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