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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 oct 30, 2013.docx

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History of Science
History of Science 2220

October 30, 2013 His 2220: Medicine in the Renaissance Renaissance = pre birth 1300-1650’s • Changes in arts and sciences Art: • Artist discovering how to paint in three dimensions and new light • Breaking away from religious traditions of medieval world • Various aspects of life are showing a movement away from the plague • New techniques, perspectives Politics: • Political ideas are filtering down through the classes • Lower levels of society are starting to get more involved • Texts being reviewed and discussed • Allowing for this revival of texts to be discussed= translation movement (Islam) • Across Europe, small separation between territories – a lot of different religions Religion: • Due to wide spread corruption in Catholic Church – exposed by likes of Martin Luther (1517) o He listed 95 reasons why the Catholic Church is corrupted o He reformed  Protestant reformation • Renaissance in religion – people rejecting Catholic Church, esp after plague cause saw church couldn’t protext them during that time Architecture & Science: • Buildings getting bigger October 30, 2013 • Structures more advanced • Science: desire to study natural world • Leonardo Devinchi – forwarded this movement to study natural world o Response to the plague • What happened with the plague to result in new views?  a veil was lifted and reality set in and needed to find something different to better understand – people could turn away from authorities in their communities because they couldn’t protect them o Also because death was inescapable – started to see the world differently from this o Want for a better world • Becoming more realist – more accepting of their reality • New age of exploration  Columbus 1492 • Printing press invented during this time – ideas able to be spread among the masses • Exploration of human body also • Scientific and philosophical time  important time • 14 C plague – depopulated Europe • Plague also endorsed certain level of skepticism against Galen also o Doesn’t meant he’s irrelevant, he still had a strong hold amongst medical body Anatomy: • Artists of Ren  took part in study of anatomy • Anatomy structure of the body, parts of the body • Reform of Anatomy : during middle ages dissection was not absolutely forbidden but only practices once dead and only specific cases (criminals) o Some understanding of body but pretty small scale October 30, 2013 • Renaissance – artist accurately represented the human body o They emphasised the idea that the human body is beautiful and worthy of study o To make their art true to life and death artists attended public anatomies and also attend executions o They studied these dead intact bodies to see how muscle, bones etc. are structured o Artists were turning to dissection to better accurately see the body o Leonardo De Vinci did the most accurate piece  He was an anatomist –as well as painter, architect etc  His art first lead him to dissection but he pursued anatomical interest with animals  He was granted permission to study at a University in Florence  Slept in morgue – obsessed with dead bodies  He claimed to have dissected 30 bodies but historians believe it is closer to 10 o Artists were leading movement toward dissection – not contemporary medical practioners (still reliant on Galen) o One person to transform the idea of the structure of the body: o Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)  Considered classical scholar, physician, anatomist, artist, humanist  Member of first generation of scholars in Western Europe to enjoy access to complete works of Galen  Great publication = Fabric of the Human Body (1543 published) • About 50 years after De Vinci • On the book cover  Vesalius is surrounded by people while he is dissecting and above, where the professor usually would overlook, sits the skeleton of Galen  signifying the work of Galen is dead and time for reform October 30, 2013  Fabric of the human body consisted several drawings of the body – in this process he is able to identify the areas where Galen was incorrect  Believed medical students must do a dissection to gain anatomical information, not look at a book  First real advancement in anatomical knowledge since the time of Galen  Traditionalist (Galen followers) and Vesalius had disputes because they believed Galen was still right  Dissections took place in the winter to avoid decay  Anatomies themselves – would begin with skeleton study, then would start looking at muscles, blood vessels, brain etc.  Still prejudice against dissection practice • Vesalius would steal dead bodies to dissect them • Grave robbery popular also • Wherever Vesalius was conducting his dissections, you would hear incidences of grave robbing  After publication of The Fabric (can abbreviate to this) – scientists began paying more attention to structure and similar info published th into 17 C  Even though with this breakthrough book, anatomy at this time had little to do with medical scientists – theory was advancing but practice was still lagging behind • Focused more on physiology rather than anatomical research o William Harvey (1578-1657)  Published a book where he claims to have discovered circulation of the blood  Book called: on the motion of the heart and blood (1628ish)  Based on observation and experiment, not dissection October 30, 2013  Argued that heart is beginning point of blood circulation  Against Galen because Galen believed lunges were the start of blood circulation  he knew from observations that what he was arguing was correct and his theory was correct but also important to remember : Western bias  Ibn al-Nafis (Medieval Islam) had discovered this work previous to Harvey but Western world did not believe it and this is why Harvey was credited with discovering it o Ambroise Pare (1510-1590)  Described as independent, original, kind and ambitious  His willingness to break away from tradition and follow methods suggested by his own observations helped promote a Renaissance within surgery  Unlike previous generations, Pare and others were able to em
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