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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 Nov 13, 2013.docx

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Western University
History of Science
History of Science 2220

November 13, 2013 Lecture 9 HIS 2220: Medicine and the Body - structure of the body = anatomy - structure previously was secondary to function of the body (physiology) - shift took place for anatomy to become first - Rise of Anatomy: - Anatome – greek – means dissection - Anatomy still implies cutting but also structure (shape, size, relationship of body parts) - Medicine – study of disease and it’s treatments - Disease = abnormalities of structure and function - Traditionally, fought for curriculum time, laboratory space in minds of practitioners - Medicine studying anatomy of body peaked in the time of Alexandria for the first time - Three themes that reoccur through the history of anatomy: o Ambivalence – whether or not dissection should be allowed o “the gift of art to medicine” – relied on visual forms of communication, study anatomy you must visualize the body o Anatomical study separate from medical wisdom – comes through most clearly with the renaissance – pursuit of anatomy in art and science - Much of history – dissection not technical process for teaching or research and nor were most dissections taking place within a medical institution, it tended to be a ritual act, performance that was staged for particular audiences - Most dissections were staged as public or semi-public and performed in theatres - Audience was likely to consist of everyday people and actual members of medical profrssion - Performance = master of performance = professor (reading from book of Galen) and cutting done by Barber November 13, 2013 Lecture 9 - Series of representations give idea of tone of these events from 14,15,16 th centuries: o Professor looks over everything o Vesalii – important because removal of Galen ideology, he would perform the dissection, took it into his own hands not from a book th o Holland – 16 and 17 century – took on Vesalii viewpoint of dissection – stressed on role of anatomy as science, as much as philosophical elements o Development of anatomy theatre – operation took place in centre, room to sit/stand circulating the dissection table, radiated seating so more people could fit and everyone could see as the dissection took place  Public anatomies that took place were performed by people who were elected to do so  known as Praelectors  This tradition developed among praelectors – they would pitch in money for the cost of a group portrait of the surgeons to be installed at the entrance of the theatre  images survived from this time  Paintings were done of the men performing the dissections – characteristics of the paintings = for the most part, were not literal representation, they were trying to portray the surgeons as the skilled masters over the body, elevate their own status (bc still viewed as not important, not skilled)  Tulp – painting of a dissection – particular focal point = the hand  bc he is trying to allow the viewer to see just how complex this mechanism is (the hand) – gibing their audience at the time what the body looked like, layer by layer (picture shows the muscles, bones etc of the hand) – prior to the xray this was the most visual you could get)  De Vinnci – pioneer of philosophical and anatomical elements  Not uncommon to see depictions of human bodies within an anatomy textbook – skeletons posed and things like that  At this time – still using criminals to dissect – you knew if you were convicted of the crime, after hanging, you would be dissected November 13, 2013 Lecture 9 o Religion still plays a large role th - 17 and 18 centuries: another form – anatomical teaching methods – creation of wax molds o Life like o Only for female wax models do they appear to be doing some sort of action, looking more like life  More like a puzzle than abody th  Continue to see 17-18 century wax models offering more “life like”  Always showing clean bodies, no blood or gore – make the wax models look good even though they were dissected  Clemente Susini – one of the best wax model maker 1803-1805 • The Medical Venus – wax model – it’s clean out the outside, looks docile, nice hair etc. but then her entire organs are showing, severed in half to better show her organs—more human version, portrays her whole body o Almost suggests that she is alive, her eyes are open, hair is curled – confusing the way that she is portrayed • Reclining Female – wax model – surreal portray of body, mimics paintings at the time where you would have reclining nude portraits – Susini gave this model almost a theatrical finish • Why did he portray the females in this way? o Correlates with theatrics that are present, making it appear that they were not violating the women (important to not violate the woman) • His male wax bodies – skinless, hairless, element of theatrics but their more clinical – more dead looking o Done with specific purpose - Wax models today – we get uncomfortable is it is taken out of it’s sterile element November 13, 2013 Lecture 9 o But we have two exhibitions now: Bodies and Body World  Actual body parts on display – no artistic influence on the models o Bodies – problematic bc of where they got the bodies from  executed Chinese Criminals o Body Worlds – even though it’s not artistic and just be the body, they’ve actually made a special effort to avoid offending people – in the pregnant women section  Hide them because it may offend, still resistant to seeing bodies in this form - Are they education or are they entertainment? What is their role today? - At the time of French Revolution, disease still had little to do with anatomy o Disease often diagnosed from illness as told to physician by patient- symptoms o Weren’t sick unless they noticeably felt sick o Sensualism – looking at pulse, stool etc. dates back to ancient Greece (empiricism) o Organic changes (inside body) were not obvious - Paris School – challenged wisdom o Anatomy is seen as important th th o Early 18 , late 19 C: Marked transition between middle ages and modern era in medicine o Referring to hospital medicine – based on purism o Hospitals had already been around (historically used as a hostile, wasn’t to diagnose) –this begins to change with paris school o Hospital as an institution begins, motto: breathe little, see a lot –emphasis on observation o Revolution based on relfection of new incarnation of medical science – seeing conceptual revolution of the understanding of disease November 13, 2013 Lecture 9 o Rise of Paris School and Medicine in first half of 19 c marked changes in medical knowledge o With this rise = rise again of Hippocrates –over shadowing Galen  Galen criticized as being overly theoretical, bringing back Hippocrates idea of observation, bed side help etc.  Observing body = understanding how body functions = better understanding of disease o Incorporates ‘daily rounds’ – listen to patients, observe them and end their days with autopsies  Teaching format was based on this o Jean-Nicolas Corvisart des Marets, 1755-1821 (professor of internal medicine at Paris School)  Internal medicine: expert in internal organs but did not conduct surgeries –tried diagnose and treat the in
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