American South January 18
White Citizens’ Councils. Upper Middle Class. Opposed to atheistism, communism, and
mongrelization of the human race. Begin in 1954 and spread throughout till 1957 until
decline begins in 60/61. See themselves as gentile rather than aristocrats. They see
themselves as being the more civil approach to racism. View themselves as a lobbyist
group. Effect: those opposed cannot get a mortgage; fired from a job; tabs begin to be
called in and lines of credits are no longer given; loans are no longer given; increased
insurance premiums; some retailers will not accept business from these parties. Total
membership across all states never exceeded 250 000 members. Highpoint was in 1955.
Indianola (Delta) birthplace of these White Citizens’ Councils.
Realization that schools cannot be merely closed. There were attempts to create private
subsidized schools which were paid for by tax dollars but had restrictions and segregation
of public schools. North Carolina attempted to appear moderate and tried to give off vibes
of progressivism, by the creation of token blacks inclusion.
Hodges - Governor of North Carolina. Creates a council to deal with the idea of solving
the segregation problem. The committee had a few black members however they were all
professors of Black universities who owed their jobs to the government of North Carolina.
The responsibility of school functions was passed down to the municipal level so the
supreme court could no longer attack the State of North Carolina, they would have to go
after each municipality.
The created a bureaucratic system that made it troublesome process for allowing black
students into their school. Criteria could be based on location of residence, literacy,
OTHER CONDITIONS. Not all black students were turned down just most, and so North
Carolina was seen as being progressive.
Hodges 1955. Posed the law as one radical solution and the closing as schools as an other
and claimed the solution sat somewhere in between. Saw voluntary desegregation as the
solution. Then he went on to attack the NAACP. Claimed that they were teaching the
African community to be embarrassed of their cultural past and their movement into the
future. Spoke of them as wanting to push these citizens into a white future and to lose their
cultural roots. Shouldn’t want to belong but the stand out in their own culture, rather than
being seen as a radical movement alongside the redneck rebellion (KKK)