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Lecture 12

History 1401E Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Giuseppe Mazzini, Nationstates, Italian Nationalism


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 1401E
Professor
Geoff Stewart
Lecture
12

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Lecture- November 25th
East and West at Mid-Century
1) The 1848 Revolution: Uneasy Triumphs
a. The Frankfurt Parliament-elected in the Spring 1848
b. Schlewig-Holstein,
c. Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia
d. The second French Republic (1848-1850)
e. National workshops
f. The June Days (1848)
2) After the 1848 revolutions: a rejuvenated reaction
a. Franz-Joseph of Austria
b. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, elected President of the Second French
Republic, Dec. 1848
c. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte crowned Emperor of the French under the
title of Napoleon III
3) Conclusions
More stable that the first half of the 19th century
Europe discovers train travel
Institutions before the revolutions of 1848 fell very quickly
Surprisingly most of the rulers in place gave up fairly quickly
The victorious side (the revolutionaries) that found themselves in power
were unable to stay in power, the coalitions proved very fragile and would
not last very long (uneasy triumphs)
Common ground between revolutions:
o Freedom of the press, freedom of expression
o A broad demand across Europe to open political debates
Behind this is the beginning of an explosion in the printing
press- steam printing came of age (truly mechanized printing)
made newspapers much cheaper
Political ideas can now spread much more easily, people now
feel they have a right to be informed and a right to their own
opinion on things
People finally feel like the happenings of Paris and Vienna
matter to them, the connection is stronger
o Freedom of religion
o Freedom of assembly
o The drafting of constitutions
Comes quickly with a representative assembly and brings
about elections and people consider how wide should the
franchise be (who should be allowed to vote)
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o Social reforms
Varies depending on the country- for example in the Austrian
empire (Hapsburg monarchy) the key reform on the minds of
people is to finally free the peasantry and rural areas from
aristocratic and feudal restraints (because this has not been
achieved yet)
In the west, the feudal system has already been wiped out. In
France, the agenda is more centered around proving the
conditions of the new emerging working class- legislations
limiting the work day etc.
All of our basic freedoms that we take for granted now are finally becoming
available for the Europeans
These revolutionary movements are connected but they have to be able to
stand on their own, it doesnt turn into a full scale explosion
In fact very quickly (a couple months) in more of the revolutionary centers,
they come close enough to power but find it difficult to stay together
(because they are coalitions) after a few months most of them had
disappeared/retreated
Italy
In Italy- the various movements quickly turned into a war of independence,
Northern Italy trying to push Austrian armies out, in a few months the
Austrian army had regained control over most of Northern Italy, took a little
longer in central Italy
Pope chased out of war in Spring 1848, revolutionaries declared a Roman
Republic (fell within 5 months), Pope returned 1849
Austrian Empire
By the end of 1848, the Hapsburg Emperor used the army more effectively to
regain control, within a few months Austria was fully under Hapsburg
control
Strong disconnection between urban and rural areas
Revolutionaries often came from big cities (like Vienna)- the first measures
they took was to satisfy rural demands, removing feudal system
Once the rural people had received what they wanted they lost interest and
the revolutionaries found themselves standing alone, no one helped them
when the army came to overthrow them
Difference in nationalities- most of the regions had a strong nationalist
movement emerging, wanting a separate economy but they couldnt hope to
achieve this alone and the different movements were never able to unite to
overthrow the Hapsburg ruler, they were eventually destroyed one by one by
the army
By early 1849, the Hapsburg Empire was again in full control
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Germany
Revolutions ended by 1849
Movements were never very strong
Unevenness of economic development over the German lands
Certain areas were advancing fairly rapidly along industrialization (further
west) and advancing much more slowly further east
The east and west did not help each other as they had different interests
Frankfurt Parliament- first parliament elected to represent all of Germany
o Worked very hard at drafting the constitution for the whole of
Germany (there was no whole of Germany so very brave of them to
try this)
o Later part of 1848, felt strong enough to promise the constitution was
coming and proclaimed a unified German empire
o Weakness of the resolution is that the Frankfurt Parliament had no
way of convincing the rulers of each of the states to give up their
crown in favour of a greater Germany (German rulers unwilling to
give up their sovereignty)- had no army
In Berlin, the king of Prussia had overcome the spell of weakness (a great
number of leaders had fallen very quickly as this King had)
o He gave up the fight very quickly at the beginning of the revolutions
but by the end of 1848 seeing that the tide had turned, he recovered
most of his powers by the summer of 1848 (making use of military
forces)
o The King of Prussia had no intention to accept a crown offered by
parliament
France
Revolutions here were not that different
France had a second republic in 1848
Moved very quickly to bring some of the key demands particularly abolishing
all censorship (freedom of the press), opening elections and political debate
to all
Substantial social reforms- creating public works to employ the unemployed
(really only becomes popular in the 20th century- these is the earliest
attempts)
The second French republic made it clear they would not send troops to help
other revolutions in other parts of Europe- this put an end to any
expectations of a united revolution
By May 1848, political situation was deteriorating
People calling for more movements and on the other side increasingly large
numbers of people believing the second republic had gone too far
By June, barricades were appearing- the point of them was to take shelter
and fire at opponents and breaks and rapid movement of troops (didnt allow
canons to be driven through streets)
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