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HIS 1401E (300)
Lecture 2

History 1401E Lecture 2:

Course Code
HIS 1401E
Brock Millman

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History 1401E
Office Hours:
Monday Wednesday: 1 2
Lecture #1: The European Map
Monday September 12 2016
French Revolution political
Industrial Revolution more fundamental than anything that has happened since the
Neolithic era
17th Century French Patterns Become European Norm:
Establishment of states “fusion of justice with power”
States have begun to embrace modernity by following France
States are chronically at war, the centerpiece of the conflict had been dynastic
War between the French and Spanish becomes chronic, fighting for predominance
Religious orthodoxy in Europe breaks down (Protestants vs. Catholics) over what
true Christianity is
Religion overlays dynastic intentions becomes vicious
Universal conflict by the 17th century
All states are locked into conflict
France has been most successful at finding the answer Sun King
Authority is the king, there is only one system of justice
All states want to be like the French because they are so successful compared to
Incomplete process unified states have not completely emerged, elimination of
barriers have not been complete
Program: harness all to power of the state rigidities, exceptions, capitulations,
elimination of barriers
Bourbon France
Most powerful state at Europe at this time
Royal government pushes for centralization and uniformity within the country
Protestants leave France
17th century is France’s great century
18th century begins on a “sour” note
Everyone begins to combine against France (Spanish Succession, 1702)
France essentially does not win, went bankrupt
Looks to England to follow what they are doing right
England begins to rise to exceptional power
21 million Frenchmen in 1700’s with an empire that is beginning to have a
national identity/national unity (however not completely, still visible rigidity)
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Lecture #2: Dynasties and Politics/European Map (2)
Wednesday September 14 2016
Iberian World
Spain and Portugal
Naples and Belgium under Spain at the time
Spain is powerful, has all the resources and is seen as the next possible great
Verdict of the Thirty Year’s War is not in favour of Spain
French model army destroys the Spanish army in the Battle of ___
Portugal 1580-1668 was part of Spain until they rebel and gain independence
o It is too small to generate enough power to be significant in Europe
Both Iberian states are faced with challenges
o Trouble centralizing a diverse place
Spanish population is xenophobic relatively impervious to ideas that come from
o Ie. How to make a powerful state as seen with France
Spain is unable to participate in a European wide process
Spanish are very unlucky with kings after Philip II
o Phillip III (1578 1621)
o Phillip IV (1605 1665)
o Charles II (1661 1700) (mentally and physically ill)
United Kingdom of Great Britain
Different patterns than the rest of Europe EXCEPT for Ireland
Britain’s time of greatness in the 18th century after 17th century full of civil war
and division (lose 3 Naval wars against the Dutch)
Becoming one of the most successful nations economically
Unique conversion of powers
17th century = laying out sources for future power
Parliamentary wins the Civil Wars Parliamentary and Protestant Supremacy
o The King was tried by parliament
Opposite process from France takes place (politically)
Centralized government with the primary power as parliament emerges
Kings become “contract kings” and are Protestant they become a figurehead
The parliament has the right to run the country instead of the King
o Frustrates the kings, William III leaves
Social Consequence of an aristocracy
o People who won the war believed that they had a right to obtain central
o Kings will do as they say
Robert Walpole emerges as a fixture
o King/Queen became incapable of exercising their rights
Queen Anne not trusted to exercise prerogatives (ie. War)
o Manage and make decisions on their behalf
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Prime Ministers begin to manage the King’s wealth
o George III was mentally and physically ill and therefore parliament began
to manage his property, finances…etc.
By the 18th century the King is more of a figurehead
Parliament humiliates the kings
o Kings were not sent by God but were elected by parliament
House of Stewart turns catholic huge problem for Parliament which is Protestant
King Charles
o Divorced and remarried problem with the Church
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland was the same guy, three different crowns
Aliens Act 1705
o Scotts lose their rights
Union of Scotland (1707) and Ireland (1801) with England
o Ireland is conquered for the time, 1692
Irish in the civil war remain on the losing side stay Catholic and everyone else
goes Protestant
Britain is more united than ever before
A system of government that had emerged allows them to do what France cannot
o Powerful, capable of organizing resources, borrow and spend money
Three Empires in Trouble (18th and 19th Century)
Holy Roman Empire
Polish Republic
Ottoman Empire
The Serf Line
o East of Berlin, across to Trias
o The west = no slaves
o The east = serfdum exist
North lives like “little kings”
Far east are the same with Russia
Serf = peasant that belongs to the land, cannot move and the law is what the
landlord says and gets more distinct the more east you go
West is more modernized, east is rural
East West Divide
o East = orthodox, Greek (Russia)
o West = Catholic/protestant
The states have no future
o The Thirty Years War, 1618 1648
Holy Roman Empire has no future
A colossal mistake for religious centralization
A return to what had been
o Adoption of Liebrum Veto, 1652
Polish nobles go to the central diet ot decide what is appropriate
for all of Poland
One says “I withdraw consent” and the meeting adjourns
No decisions are able to be made
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