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Lecture 21

History 1401E Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Chartism, Zollverein, Class Consciousness

Course Code
HIS 1401E
Pierre Reynard

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History Lecture #21: 1848 Revolutions Nov 25
The Springtime of Peoples
I) The 1830 wave of Revolutions
Continuation of retreat of aristocratic elites, they were losing
ground at the top of society
o Rise of a new type of elite
o Financial and industrial elite: new bourgeoisie
Understanding that for the lower classes, the Revolution of 1830
did not bring much
o Social reforms were still very slow to come
o Throughout 1830 and after there were many more social
Starting in 30’s, you can argue that political debates are shifting.
o The goal of people who want to reform and change politics
in western Europe
o No longer bring down old aristocracy, became focused on
the social question
Easing social tension
Reform social conditions to avoid social issues
Russian and Austrian troops regained control of Poland, under
harsher control
Number of movements in Spain, introduce Germany
Germany: age of unification
o Nationalist sentiments are prevalent before liberal
o More people thought their goal was a unified Germany
Most of these challenges had limited success
Diversity of contexts; situation is different depending on the
region (liberal, elite, etc.)
Romantic dimension, understanding that the first half of 19th
century is very steep
o Romantic movement: different way to look at the
world, reaction to what happened before
o Extreme rationalization from Enlightenment
France: The Three Glorious Days of July 8, Louis-Philippe,
King of the French
Belgium: 1830 Independence, a new neutral kingdom
Poland: Insurrection (1830-31)
Britain: 1829 Roman Catholic Relief Act
1832 (Great Parliamentary) Reform Act
1834: creation of the Zollverein (German Customs Union)
II) 1830-1848: Building Pressures
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