History 1401E Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: French Second Republic, Sonderweg, Habsburg Monarchy

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Published on 16 Jan 2018
Western University
History 1401E
History Lecture #22: In the Wake of the 1848 Revolutions Nov 30
East and West at Mid-century
Most of the revolutions were failures, but societies were still changed
Deteriorating economic context triggered a number of uprisings, mostly in
central part of Europe
In most cities the regimes in place collapsed to the revolutionary movements,
authority collapsed
Often because the rulers didn’t quite gather the strengths to resist, loss of
Established regimes born at congress of Vienna, by 1848 these regimes
yielded to demands made by the streets
An uneasy/unstable coalition between liberal middle classes and popular
classes, to push an uprising you need both
Revolutions represent the coming together of these two different groups but
they are not very stable
I) The 1848 Revolutions: Uneasy Triumphs
Freedom of the press, newspapers are being revolutionized by
steam driven printing presses (real political force)
Freedom of assembly
Opening of political scene, people can inform themselves and come
up with an opinion of their own, communications are improving
Freedom of religion, long term process in 19th century
Drafting of constitutions and electoral franchise are prevalent
All of these movements are happening everywhere but they are
still all connected, increasing level of connections between various
After a few months a counter wave, a re-establishment of
authority, Italy wanted Austria to not control so much of it, but
Austrian army still re-gained back control
Two key reasons collapse of Austria??? Interest of people in cities
and people in country side differed, and national interest
Western part of Germany were on the path to industrialization,
but in other parts of the confederation, more traditional areas
wanted to stay that way… not keen on industrial areas of the west
Unification was a problem for Germany
The Frankfurt Parliament elected in the spring of 1848
o First German national assembly made its goal to create a
united state of Germany, went about drafting a constitution
o This parliament had no way of imposing itself to the
various rulers of Germany though
o Summer of ’4 the king of Prussia came to understand that
the situation was favorable to regaining his authority
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