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Lecture 3

History 1401E Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Umberto Boccioni, Second Industrial Revolution, Infant Mortality

Course Code
HIS 1401E
Nicolas Virtue

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Fin-de-siecle europe: the crisis of modernity
- End of the 19th century
- Sums up the ideology and is a transformative period
Europe 1914
- Old ways of governing and politics were not really suited to the new modern world
- Dominant modes of thought that were developed in the 18th century
- The enlightenment period specifically, a europe that was more based on reason
and science
- They now used science and technology to improve their society
- Half a billion people living in the continent, lower rates of infant mortality
- Advancement in medical science and increase in food supply
- Dominant place in the world
- Europe had reached a height in modernity but optimism was placed by a sense of fear and
belief in science was put under scrutiny
Crisis of modernity
- Totalitarian movements claim to provide an alternative model to liberalism and reason
- Modern means an industrial society
- Second industrial revolution take off after 1850 and is more focused on steel and
manufacturing, its more widespread throughout the continent
- The crisis emanates from the second revolution, a more large scale revolution
- Urbanization was brought out by this revolution
- Factories are built next to power so cities developed and people moved from
countryside to be closer
- Only 15% of workers were involved in agriculture
- Rapid transition of way of life and the way societies worked
- Umberto Boccioni was one painter in a group called the futurist, a minority who
embraced this crisis of modernity
- Cities were full of danger and crime, newspapers claimed that living in a city was a
danger place to live in
- Went beyond crim, intellectuals write about the high pace morals challenged traditional
beliefs, brought a sense of isolation being with strangers
- The overstimulation of city life was responsible for many mental illness and suicide rate
went up on this period
- Governments provide an education to low income families and act more legislatively,
passing labour laws and etc. to try and appease the working class
Mass Politics
- The other ways is expanding the vote
- The right to vote in most european countries are given to working class men
- Pretty much everywhere except russia had this right
- They tended to be literate and politized
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