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Lecture 4

History 1401E Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Hague Conventions Of 1899 And 1907, Carl Jung, Total War


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 1401E
Professor
Nicolas Virtue
Lecture
4

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Unleashing the Totalitarian Age: The Great War 1914-1918
- Totalitarian ideas arose from the age of crisis
- Yet in 1914 there a new ideas challenging the old ways but they still remained the status
quo
- Carl jung refers to the first world war unleashing totalitarian demons
- For example Germany and Russia are brought down in WWI and Italy lands in a
crisis
- This gives a foundation for new ideologies
- Resulted in 9 million combat deaths 6 million civilians
- The losses were all the more horrific after such progress in society
- France relied on elan, still believed that the napoleonic values of soldiers moving
forward despite technological advances was going to be enough to push through
- Within the first year the image of the combatant changes dramatically, wielding
new technologies and wearing more accessible clothing to help them in combatant
Total war
- Total war aims
- The aim is total domination or survival
- Total methods
- If this is a war for survival then anything goes mentality
- Targeting civilians
- Eraser of distinction between combatant and noncombatant
- Total control
- How governments control their own people to ensure the public and soldiers
maintain this willingness to fight for countries
- Propaganda and terror
- Adopts a more centralized way of life
- Total mobilization
- Mobilizing the civilian population
- In a war for national survival the there is a need to mobilize resources towards
war effort
- Formation of massive armies using all sorts of science to kill as many as possible,
results in mass casualties
Total war aims
- Not actually fighting for pieces of land
- The all portray the war as defensive and they enter the war in defence of nations
existence
- It begins with the assassination of Franz Ferdinand (heir is austria-hungary throne), june
28th 1914
- Austria blamed Serbia and immediately goes to war with them
- Russia feels threatened that serbia will be taken
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