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Lecture 16

History 1401E Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Nato, Warsaw Pact, Truman Doctrine


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 1401E
Professor
Karen Priestman
Lecture
16

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The Beginning of the Cold War and the Division of Europe
Planning for Postwar Europe
- Atlantic Charter: August 1941
- Moscow Declaration: Oct 1943
- The ‘Big Three’ Conferences:
- Tehran: Nov-Dec. 1943
- Yalta: February 1945
- Potsdam: July-Aug. 1945
Germany Divided
- British Zone: Industry
- French Zone: mixture
- American Zone: mixture
- Soviet Zone: agriculture
The Iron Curtain
- Truman Doctrine (March 1947): The US will aid countries threatened by Communism
- Marshall Plan (June 1947): $14 billion in economic aid for war-torn Europe
- Containment (July 1947):Counter-force against Soviet aggression.
- Official policy by 1948
Berlin Airlift
- June 1948: Soviets close all surface traffic to western zones of Berlin
- 1.6 million tons of food for 320 days
- May 1949: Soviets reopen surface traffic
Europe Divided
- 1949:
- West Germany (FRG)
- East Germany (GDR)
- NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
- 1955: Warsaw Pact created
Early European Integration
- UN (United Nations): 1945
- Supranational
- Sovereignty
- ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community): 1951
- Benelux: Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg + France, Germany, Italy
- EEC (European Economic Community): 1957
- Customs union
- Leads to European Community and European Parliament
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