History 1401E Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Bourgeoisie, Ellie Goulding, Great Fear

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Published on 27 May 2016
School
Western University
Department
History
Course
History 1401E
Monday, October 19, 2015
History Lecture
The “First” Revolution
-Calling for a meeting of the Estates General
understood to be a gathering of representatives of all the various estates
-clergy, nobility, third estate (bourgeoisie)
-when the monarchy found itself in financial or any other type of trouble, a
meeting of the third estate would be called
-a difficult business to manage
-monarchy was not keen on calling upon the Estates General
until July 1788, when bankers refused to lend out money
August 1788: Louis XVI finally agreed to call upon the Estates General
this is where the monarchy starts to lose control
-last gathering of the Estates General before 1788-89 was 1640
-idea of representation here remains very vague
ran on the principle one estate = one vote
-therefore the third estate (largest part of French society) was always
outnumbered
-no one really knew what exactly the Estates General did: did they vote? discuss
issues? etc?
-Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
Rebellions in Geneva (1765-1768, 1782)
The Pugachev peasant revolt (Russia, 1773-1774)
The English Crown facing rebellions in America and in Ireland, as well as political
protest at home
Resistance to the innovations imposed by Gustavus III of Sweden (1771-1792)
-trying to bring Enlightenment to his kingdom
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Monday, October 19, 2015
-encountered much resistance and was executed in 1792
Anti-Habsburg rebellions in Hungary and in the Southern (Belgian) low countries
(late 1780s)
The Dutch Rebellion (“Patriot Party”) of 1787
political tensions, resistance, attempts at bringing enlightenment throughout Europe
-The Pre-Revolution
lasted a year or two, 1788-89
the process of growing enthusiasm — people’s anger with the monarchy began to
grow and people desired to do something about it
Shaping the Estates General (Fall-Winter 1788-1789)
-Doubling the Third Estate: 600 delegates of the Third Estate to match the 300
delegates of the Clergy and the 300 of the Nobility
because the third estate was 90% of the population, it seemed only fair to give
this estate more representatives
but the principle was still one estate = one vote
-Voting: “by head” or “by order”?
the clergy and nobility will always outvote the third estate
-Cahiers de doléances
book of grievances
-these complaints would be taken to the king at Versailles
-process of reforms was long attempted
-the Winter was crucial
-Estates General met on May 5th, 1789
opening of the Estates General meeting was a speech by the King
Louis XVI’s speech was a disappointment
-failed to address the one issue everyone desired to hear: how would this
assembly vote???
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