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Lecture 34

History 1401E Lecture Notes - Lecture 34: Persian Gulf, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Jawaharlal Nehru

Course Code
HIS 1401E
Pierre Reynard

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1. Development of indigenous movements that demanded independence, and backed this
demand with military force
a. This process had started in the interwar period and picked up after the war
2. The weakness of the major colonial powers (Britain, France, and the Netherlands) in the
aftermath of World War II
a. France had been conquered by Germany and Britain had been weakened
a.i. They did not have the military strength to keep control over their colonies
b. Britain as the one that more liberally gave up their power
b.i. They easily gave up India
c. The Dutch tried to hold on to Indonesia but they lost that war
d. France tried to hold on to its colonies the longest
d.i. They were totally and bitterly defeated in both Southeast Asia and Africa
3. The support given to independence movements by the Soviet Union and, in some cases,
communist China and, especially initially, the United States
a. These countries were anti-imperialist
a.i. While the USSR had an empire they were against imperialism in other
Challenges Faced by Independence Movements
1. Often had to transform indigenous societies, to create a feeling of national solidarity, and
to form more centralized national institutions
a. They had to create new kinds of societies while getting rid of colonial rulers
a.i. Colonized societies were often pre-modern
a.i.1. They were not viewed as civilized by the people that were
colonizing the nation
b. Creating a national language since tribes had different languages from one
b.i. They idea to create solidarity often was not successful and bloody civil
wars broke out
2. In some places one legacy of colonialism was the settlement of non-indigenous peoples
in colonies
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a. This often resulted in conflicts
a.i. Examples include South Africa, Algeria, Israel/Palestine, Burma, Malaya,
and East Africa
b. Europeans going to the colonized nation to live there
b.i. Immigration between people in an empire
b.i.1. Indians migrating to Africa and the Caribbean
3. The status of people of mixed heritage, generally the offspring of relationships between
European men and native women
a. This group was used as a middle class between the colonizing and the colonizer
Britain and India: 1914-1939
1. The role of the Indian Army during the war
a. Over a million soldiers support the Allied cause, serving to enforce British rule on
the frontiers of India, in Africa and the Middle East
a.i. Some Indian units fought on the Western Front in France.
2. Secretary of State for India promises “self-governing institutions for India” (1917)
3. Creation of elected parliaments in 1919 with limited roles in governing at the local level
4. British refusal to revoke wartime laws that give the government the power to arrest and
imprison individual suspected of sedition without trial
5. The massacre of Jallianwalla Bagh, in the city of Amritsar in the Punjab.
a. British figures: 379 Indians killed
b. Indian Congress figures: roughly 1,000 killed
b.i. Many more wounded (April 1919)
6. The beginning of nation-wide campaigns of non-cooperation with British rule, led by
Mahatma Gandhi
7. Gradual increase in number of Indians in the Indian Civil Service, the administration of
a. In 1929 894 British and 367 Indians; in 1940, 588 and 597
a.i. From 1935 provincial, but not national, rule largely in the hands of local,
Indian, councils
Some power was transferred to the native population
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