History 1601E Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Silk, Neo-Confucianism, Rank

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HIST1601E LECTURE 5 - SONG CHINA AND EARLY KOREA
- nomads to the north still pose a problem. Emperor makes every effort to militarily defeat them, however
Northern China is ultimately left to the nomads.
- after a Liao invasion of 1004 came within a hundred miles of Kaifeng, the Song settled and agreed to
pay them off with silver and silk.
- The payments to Liao and Xia only cost 2-3% of the state’s revenues, maintaining a military would have
cost 75% of total tax revenue.
- Chinese always contrasted themselves with nomads and attempted to keep their identity separate. Ex.
Nomads drink sour milk, other groups like buckwheat
THE LIAO:
APPEASING THE LIAO:
CONTRASTING GROUPS:
POPULATION DOUBLES DUE TO:
- Relative peace
- Agricultural advancements
- Systematic application of organic manure, double cropping and introduction of drought resistant
and fast ripening strains of rice from Vietnam
- Rice provides more calories per unit of land than wheat or millet, allowing for denser settlements.
(one of the advantages of living in south China).
- for tools, weapons etc. Increase of mines, more access to metal. Deforestation in North China leads to
development of coal industry.
- commercialization of the economy, growth of markets silk, lacquer, ceramics.
- capitals filled with foreigners. Precious gems, incense and perfumes from the east.
- Dynasty encourages trade and expands maritime routes.
- First reported use during the Song dynasty. Allows ships to get to the middle east more safely and
efficiently.
- Song government goes from minting 800 million coins a year to 6 billion. Invents world’s first government
issued paper money.
IRON INDUSTRY:
ECONOMIC REVOLUTION:
TRAVEL ON SILK ROAD:
MAGNETIC COMPASS:
DEMAND FOR MONEY:
SONG CHINA
October 1, 2019
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- cast characters into metal, align into trays, could reuse characters multiple times
- Not very popular- 6000 different characters, took too long. (Gutenberg only needed around 200)
- Chinese prefered the style of handwritten calligraphy which woodblock printing could better replicate. Therefore
while they invented movable type they did not exploit it.
- used for bombs and to propel missiles against nomads.
WOODBLOCK PRINTING:
MOVEABLE TYPE:
GUN POWDER:
ALLIANCE WITH JURCHENS:
HANGZHOU:
INK BRUSH PAINTING:
DAOSIM:
- Song allies with the Tinguts (Jurchens) to defeat the Liao. However once the Liao are defeated the Jurchens
refuse to leave.
- Because the economic center of the country had already shifted south, loss of the north did not ruin the Song
economy.
- capital grew to 1 million or more residents. Prosperous morning and evening markets. Buddhism and Daoism
both vibrant.
- Black ink on white paper, landscape paintings ultimately have to have some representation of man.
- However man always has to be small and in harmony with nature (Daosim)
- said to have been created by Lao-Tzu/Laozi, a contemporary of Confucius. However he was not actually a
historical character. Books written by several people rather than a single individual.
- invented in the 8th century, allows for mass production
- One worker could produce 1000 pages a day, each block could yield 20,000 copies.
PRINCIPLES:
- the world started from chaos/anarchy, began as a state of pure potential.
- Then things split up into the opposites, black and white
- Finally the five elements developed: Fire, water, earth, wood, metal. That is how the world began.
YIN AND YANG:
- everything is black and white, they are not true opposites as they originated from the same place
- things are not static, everything is always changing, Ex. day is always turning to night and vice versa
- Holistic outlook. The great harmony of the universe.
CALLIGRAPHY:
- becomes an art form. Black ink on white paper. Showed energy of the artist. For monks, it showed the
spiritual advancement of the writer.
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