History 1803E Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Western Roman Empire, High Middle Ages, Aristocracy
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009 - Wed 12.30 SH 335
-012 wed 12.30*
Lecture : The Medieval World
Middle Ages / medival period 476- 1500 A.D (approx.)
476- fall of the western roman empire: after attack from various tribes referred by
the Romans as barbarians. Historians today realize they only had a different culture.
1st century BC- roman empire established . at its height it had a well developed
economic and political structure.
3rd century AD – Empire under attack: suffering from years of warfare, diesese,
famine, over taxation. Over taxed due to heavy fighting. Local people had to rebuild
476 AD – fall of Western Roman empire, eastern roman empire survived. Get
renamed Byzantine empire
1500: end of Middle Ages: beginning of exploration and spread of renaissance.
( Renaissance: 1300s- 1500s) Began in Italy and spread in Europe. Renassiaace:
rebirth of classical knowledge and celebration of indiviaul creativity. ( keep in mind:
overlap between time period of middle period and renaissance)
GEOGRAPHY AND THEPEOPLE:
Focus: western European business within Europe with North Africa and near East
Western Medieval Europe:
- North: Brithish Isles, Scandinavia, low countries ( Netherlands, Belgium
Luxemburg), germany, North and central france
- South: Italy, souther france, Iberia ( spain and Portugal)
Italy developed innovative business techniques such as banking,etc
- Near : Eastern traditions: blending of 3 cultures: classical age of roman e
Christianity became the dominat in the west. Muslim in the west were
concentered in Spain and Southern History.
Non chistrians in the west were considered to be foriengers. Non Christians
faced a precaious status that could negatively effect them. Even position
Hierachical Social structure: top: high level clergy and aristocrats
Midde: Wealthy commoners, lower level clergy and aristocrats
Bottom: Poor commeners
These catgarious could be futhur dividied. Like a lot of kind of merchants.
Women were considered subordinate to men
Status within medival times depened on : religion, gender, wealth as well as your
positon in one of the 3 estates
Steroetypical Images of the Middle Ages
Jostling tournament, plagues, big feasts, great castles
About 40 years ago, people would have tought medival and middle age business
Were looked down as backward in economically,techincolgy.
Midlle ages were seen as being a backward period in the middle of the classical age
and the renaissance.
Middle agres can be divinded into:
1. Early: 476-1000
2. Central Middle Ages (high) : 1000-1300)
3. Late middle ages ( 1300- 1500)
Central middle ages was the time when major economic and political changes were
Nation states were begging to evolve, growth in urban areas, governments were
forming, universities were being established , laws were being created and codified(
writted down on paper). Church becamed powerful: also had political and economic
power, agricultural production increased, towns and citites were fostering trade and
provided labpur supply for medical manufacturreres, important centres for long
distance trade were appearing, various business people were forming assoicaionts,
new financial nad accounting toos were appearing and business becaned nore
complex in other ways , some companies were ecen opening up branch busineses
Why Begin With the Middle Ages
- Gain apprecaiton for medival business – diverse, complex and innovative
- Innovations in financial administrations and business organiszations-
Commerical Revolution by the 13th century.
- Reminds us that business did exist before the industrial revolution of the 18th
and 19th centuary
Middle ages / medival period 476- 1500 a. d (approx. ) 476- fall of the western roman empire: after attack from various tribes referred by the romans as barbarians. Historians today realize they only had a different culture. 1st century bc- roman empire established . at its height it had a well developed economic and political structure. 3rd century ad empire under attack: suffering from years of warfare, diesese, famine, over taxation. 476 ad fall of western roman empire, eastern roman empire survived. 1500: end of middle ages: beginning of exploration and spread of renaissance. ( renaissance: 1300s- 1500s) began in italy and spread in europe. Renassiaace: rebirth of classical knowledge and celebration of indiviaul creativity. ( keep in mind: overlap between time period of middle period and renaissance) Focus: western european business within europe with north africa and near east. North: brithish isles, scandinavia, low countries ( netherlands, belgium. South: italy, souther france, iberia ( spain and portugal)