History 1810E Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Making Money, Snaith, Meritocracy

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21 Jul 2016
Department
History – Week 4 19:26
The Realities of Modern War
1. The Mobilization of Consent
2. Protecting the Family
3. Nursing Sisters
4. Total War?
Greeted modern war with medieval imagery
Reality – no machine could take the place of a person in this particular war; this war
could NOT be won by machines
Nowadays, we use technology to avoid endangering the lives of human beings –
example, the airborne drone
Mobilization of Consent:
Have to get the country behind the war effort
Any potential dissent had to be stamped out  censorship, deportation,
detention, exclusion, arbitrary arrest, etc.
War Measures Act: Legislation gave federal government control over trade, imports,
exports, manufacturing, the seizing of property, and transportation via land, air, and sea
 in order to stamp out dissent
Very little opinion raised over this  very weird that no one raised concerns over
extraordinary power
One of the first things the government did was to deport and/or rally up people of
different ethnicities (aka “alien enemies”  Germans, Austrians, Hungarians, and Turks
These people became subject to imprisonment if they did not come forward 
war camps, mostly in Western Canada
War camps were logical, not excusable but a reasonable response to an unreasonable
situation because:
Racial discrimination was a relatively minor factor
Every other country involved in the war interned enemy aliens
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The men being interned were largely young men of military age and posed a
significant threat to the country at war  many young, unattached males from
Eastern Europe had immigrated to Canada before the war; many were reservists
in their former country
oReservists could be called back to fight even if they had emigrated, so
many were being called back from Canada in 1914
oWasn’t a significant problem before Canada got involved but situation
changed when they entered  could now close the ports to enemy aliens,
but many would go over the border and leave from the States and it was
too hard to monitor
So, many were returning home to fight for their country’s military
 a military that was an enemy of Canada
oGovernment turned to internment to keep them from leaving
Not all men that were interned were reservists but the authorities at the time
didn’t know that so regarded all men as reservists and potential threats
Bishop Budka – Bishop in the Catholic Ukranian church
oIssued a letter to Austria-Hungarian men urging them to go home and
fight for Hitler  terrible mistake and recants it, but the damage was
already done
oHad given the authorities the excuse and reason to go ahead with
internment
Internment conditions were bad but no worse than conditions in any mining or lumber
camp before the war; grim conditions in the first place
People died in the camps but number show that the number of deaths within the camp
was actually lower than the general public
Work camps would occasionally go on strike  inadequate food, poor living conditions,
etc.
Government couldn’t force them to work so would sometimes just shut down the
camp
Protecting the Family:
Particularly the families of men who had enlisted for overseas surface
Male was primary breadwinner  could represent real hardship for the family left
at home
Families were much bigger back then
Soldiers only made $1.10 a day
Government realized that something had to be done for the families of soldiers
Didn’t want to be responsible for all these individuals
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Realized the men would be more likely to enlist if they knew their families would
be taken care of
Government created a “signed pay”  government would have you deduct a portion of
what you made a month and it went directly to your wife – this was non-negotiable
Made sense because there wasn’t much you should have been spending your
money on overseas – didn’t want them to drink their money away, or for other
uses
This kept a lot of families away from destitution
Wasn’t enough for ALL families  came up with the Patriotic Fund
Relied on only donations
Raised 46 million dollars = 660 million dollars nowadays
Cons:
oWas accused of being an agent of upper-middleclass moralism
oWas very slow  paperwork being sent overseas, etc.
Son taking care of his elderly mother and father  long series of
letters going back and forth to determine whether they should get
the money or not, but it doesn’t matter in the end because they
died before they were eligible  shouldn’t have taken this long;
deaths could have been avoided
Patriotic Fund inspectors made sure the wives weren’t drunks, “loose” women, didn’t
consort with enemy aliens, etc.
oWomen expected to support the war on an ongoing basis but not eligible
to fight  assumed that women would fight the war on the home
front
Fundraising for fund was mostly done by women
By the end of the war, donations for this and other funds totaled 100 million dollars =
1.2 billion nowadays
Home was expected to be run tightly, not extravagantly
Even cooking became almost militarized  some commodities weren’t rationed
but difficult to secure; some commodities should be sent to soldiers and not used
at home
Mothers were in charge of informing and making sure the children were fully aware of
what was going on with the war and how to act  books, toys, could buy or make
children uniforms so they could dress up like a soldier
Women wanting to play a more active role was limited  some jobs in the civilian
economy (factories), or to serve as nurses
Red Cross or Military Nurses (aka nursing sisters)
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