History 2145A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Reinhard Heydrich, Ovra, Gestapo

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One of the defining characteristics of a totalitarian state is the presence of a secret police that will use terror. There were 4 assassination attempts in 1925-1926, including one by a woman. November 1926 the law for the defence of the state (police ability to punish those who opposed fascism) Confino when authorities dumped dissidents off in a desolate area of italy. Special tribunal for the defense of the state (november 1926) legalization of the death penalty judged 13,000+ political opponents/only 42 were convicted to the death penalty/and only 32 of those penalties were carried out. 1927 creation of ovra (leader was arturo bocchini) he organized a nationwide system of informants, and kept mussolini updated on the mood of the populace, although he tapped mussolini"s phone. 375 people worked for ovra, most of which were clerks. Its strength was with its informants and ability to use police forces across italy.

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