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Lecture 22

History 2145A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Mischling, Miscegenation, Oct-4


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 2145A/B
Professor
Wesley Gustavson
Lecture
22

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The Holocaust
Terminology
Holocaust: sacrifice consumed by fire
Shoah: Hebrew for Catastropheor destruction
Chronology:
-1933-38:
oRestrictive legislation
-1938-41
oRemoval and expulsion
-1941-45
oFinal solution (extermination
Intentionalists vs. Functionalists
-Intentionalists:
oHitler’s speeches and writings are blueprint for genocide
oNazi policies are incremental step in master plan
oProblem: lack of evidence for premeditation of genocide
-Functionalists:
oHolocaust result of anti-Semitic policies, Nazi bureaucracy, and demand of war
oCumulative progress
-Modern functionalist
oNo master plans, initiatives from above and below
oHitler at centre of decision making process
Anti-Semitism
-Germany not the worst
-A lot of Germans turned off by radical anti-Semitism, Hitler had to turn the discrimination down in speeches
-People voted for Nazis IN SPITE of anti-Semitism not BECAUSE of it
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-National boycott of Jewish owned stores
-Storm troopers blockade Jewish stores
Legal Exclusion
-Apr 7th 1933- Civil Service reconstruction law
oJews banned from civil service job
-Sept 29th 1933- Reich Chamber of culture
oBanned Jews from artistic world
-Oct 4th 1933- National Press law
oBanned Jews from press
-July 14th 1934- Law on the revocation of naturalization and annulment of German citizenship
oAny immigrant Jews had citizen revoked
Nuremburg Laws (Sept 15th 1935)
-Not well thought out
-night before
-Series of laws lumped together
-Reich citizenship law
oOnly those of German or similar blood can hold German citizenship
oEveryone else second rate
-Law for the protection of German blood and German honour
oBanned marriage and sexual relations between Aryan and Jewish citizens
-Law for the protection of the genetic health of the German people (Oct. 1935)
oHad to undergo medical examination before you could wed
Problem:
-How do you define Jewish?
-Fell back on religious term
-Mischling[e] - mixed blood (only 1 or 2 Jewish grandparents are the only Jewish part of family lineage or
family unit)
Policy lessening
-Order given by Hitler to keep anti-Semitic activity to minimum during 1936 berlin Olympic games
-Impressed German Jews and international audiences
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