March 9 - Appeasement and Terror.docx

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Second World War: From Appeasement to Aggression
Totalitarian Radicalization: War at Home and Abroad
- Radicalization entropy “wheels coming off the bus” – fascism/Nazism in its most extreme case
i. First world war 9 million dead (mostly military)
ii. Second world war 55 million dead (mostly civilian)
- War at home
- War abroad
Stalinist terror: The Purges; 1934-1938 and the show trials; 1936-1938
- Estimated range 400,000 to 1 million killed by Stalinist courts and police
- Prison camps gulag: 600,000 prisoners in 1930 to 7 million prisoners by 1937
- Est. by end of 1945, gulag camp system held 15 million prisoners
Incremental Radicalization
- You don’t get the most radical platform of the party right away, happens over time
- Didn’t have a secret police like Germany or Russia
- First earned the title “totalitarian” but is actually the least totalitarian state by the end of this
- Fascist Italy's Imperial and Racist Phase; 1935-1938
- The invasion of Ethiopia (1935)
Spazio vitale living space
- Anti-Jewish racial laws (1938)
- Comes from nowhere (Mussolini had previously said Italy had no Jewish problem on record
telling Italian Jews not to look for a homeland in the holy land; they are Italian, not exclusively
- Racial laws between colonizers and indigenous people (not as genetically specific as Germany's
but still present)
- Mussolini seeks to build an empire (seek living space north/east Africa and Mediterranean)
- New Rome
- Not actually able to pull it off (new man, empire etc.)
- Goals more ambitious than what he could expect to achieve
- Ex. Jewish converts allowed to marry Catholics according to church Mussolini fought this but
could not stop it
- Regio Esercito royal army; king is in charge of army, not Mussolini
The Brutal Friendship
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