History 2145A/B Lecture Notes - Fascist Manifesto, Harold Laski, The Communist Manifesto

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20 Apr 2012
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Jan 11/11
Revolution Against Revolution
The Rise of Fascism
-fascists say one thing and do another thing
-some violent revolutionaries and some more conservative
*-revolution and reaction- fascism is one reaction to Bolshevik socialism
*-fascism- offensive to people, insult, people think it means oppressive, intolerant, repressive, tyrannical
Fascism in History
-the fascio- is the tie that binds a bundle of stick
-Mussolini associates his party with this
-symbol of strength and authority
-the fascio is a tie that binds- collective strength, organization, idea, identity
Blackshirts, Brownshirts, Greenshirts: National Variants of Fascism
-communist manifesto- no fascist manifesto
-debate- is fascism an ism/ideology?- no core set of unifying things
-Harold Laski (politital scientist) says fascism can’t be defined-not like other isms
-Soviet argument- fascism is an agent of bourgesieou capitalism reacting to socialism- defensive
of capitalism, don’t worry about definitions, it is a mask of power
*-fascist minimum/generic form of fascism- is there a defining set of principles of fascism?- ex.
anti-Semitism is fundamental to Nazism, but in Italy anti-Semitism is non-existent
*-political novelty- something unique, different, new that the fascists are offering
-economies are capitalist- not laissez-faire capitalist though
What is Fascism? A Working Typology
A) Ideology and Goals:
-Synthesis of nationalism and socialism: preaches national revolution versus class struggle
*-core idea that all fascist movements have
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-socialism/Marxism preaches the end of the nation-state- international/anti-national- ex. Marx
says workers of the world unite- message is that your primary identity resides in your social class
-nationalism- wants to promote, not destroy nation- identity is in your nation
*-they are national-socialists- still want change for the good of their nation- ex. national
revolution- radical, revolutionary nationalists
-putting those two ideologies together- novelty of fascism
-Creation of a new nationalist authoritarian state that rejects traditional principles or models (ex. liberal
democracy)
-want to create something new and different
*-Positive view and use of violence and war
-value struggle
-necessary for national struggle/revolution
*-provides a justification for the use of violence and war
-Foreign policy goals: empire, expansion and radical change in nation’s status vis-à-vis other nation-
states
**-Organization of regulated, multi-class and integrated national economy- national economy- national
corporatism
-fascists don’t believe in leaving the market alone- what is good for a certain company is good
for the country- nationalist principle, national interest in maintaining bank, company, etc.
-corporatist economy
*-in practise this will seem much more difficult than on paper
B) The Fascist Negations:
*-Anti-liberalism
-anti-individualism
-emphasis on the collective- good of the nation, your individual freedom cant challenge this
-justify this by saying you as the individual are only important if you fit with the national
common good
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